North American populations of Entoleuca mammata are genetically more variable than populations in Europe
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Mycol. Res. 108(7):766-774
Entoleuca mammata (syn. Hypoxylon mammatum) is a damaging pathogen of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata in North America and P. tremula in Europe, where the fungus occurs only sporadically in alpine regions and Scandinavia. It has been hypothesized that E. mammata was introduced to Europe from North America. In this study, E. mammata isolates collected from Europe and North America were compared by a sequence analysis of two DNA markers derived from DNA fingerprints. The objective of the study was to elucidate the relationship between North American and European E. mammata populations by testing two hypotheses: (1) North American and European isolates are conspecific; and (2) the fungus was introduced between continents causing both a founder effect and a genetic bottleneck. North American populations were found to be more polymorphic, but no major phylogenetic differences between fungal isolates collected from different continents were found. This result combined with the historical observations of the disease in Europe implies that E. mammata was introduced to Europe several centuries ago.
Kasanen, Risto; Hantula, Jarkko; Ostry, Michael; Pinon, Jean; Kurkela, Timo. 2004. North American populations of Entoleuca mammata are genetically more variable than populations in Europe. Mycol. Res. 108(7):766-774