Scientists & Staff
Current ResearchMy research highlights strategies and tools for reconciling urban development with biodiversity conservation. I use a socio-ecological approach to improve fundamental understanding of key ecological processes in human-dominated landscapes, with a focus on birds, pollinators and ground arthropods. Current studies:
Effectiveness of Pollinator Habitat
As part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Long-Term Ecological Research (MSP LTER) project, research will test the effectiveness of the new state-wide "Bee Lawn" program for transforming MSP into a refuge for pollinators. This research will be useful for managers of the bee lawn program by providing detailed information on optimal soil properties, plant mixes, lawn size, and locations for supporting pollinators. Press release HERE. This builds on previous research in Springfield, MA that tested how lawn mowing frequency can enhance habitat for pollinators and ecosystem services in residential landscapes. See research website for downloadable lawn signs that promote bee-friendly lawn care.
Population Dynamics of Backyard Birds
Understanding the demographic responses to backyard bird populations will provide a stronger assessment of relationships birds have with urban habitats. Research investigates annual survival, fecundity, response to predation risk, and how urban heat islands affect physiology. Research strategies include partnering with the public to co-produce science and offer opportunities for the public to participate in research. Part of this research is in partnership with the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center's Neighborhood Nestwatch program.
Wildlife Habitat Models and Decision Support Tools
Rapid habitat assessment tools can increase our capacity to assess habitat potential within the urban forest, evaluate existing habitat improvement plans, and can provide detailed information of habitat requirements. I develop and integrate habitat relationship models into the urban forest assessment tool i-Tree Eco. The wildlife module provides a rapid assessment of the bird habitat potential in the urban forest, evaluates habitat improvement plans, and provides detailed information of habitat requirements.
Urban Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Residential Landscapes
The integration of environmental and social factors in residential landscapes shape urban biodiversity and human interactions with nature. Understanding how these factors influence wildlife communities, urban green space management and human-well-being can highlight opportunities to strengthen urban stewardship and connections with nature. Research documents long-term trends of urban wildlife communities and human perceptions of wildlife throughout the Phoenix metropolitan area as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project, and how residential yard management decisions interact with biodiversity and ecosystem processes across the United States as part of the American Residential Macrosystems project.
Log Landings and Bison: Wildlife Management in National Forests and Grasslands
With the increased pace and scale of active forest and grassland management, identifying opportunities to provide and enhance wildlife habitat becomes key. Log landings, resulting after timber harvest, have the potential for providing ephemeral pollinator habitat. Research as part of the Pollinator Habitat in Log Landings (PHiLL) project investigates different soil amendments, floral resources and growing condition, and how they affect bee communities. The Midewin National Tall grass Prairie introduced bison in 2015. Active applied research addresses whether and how bison grazing improves the diversity of native vegetation and do restored prairies provide suitable habitat for grassland birds.
Research InterestsI translate the application of scientific information into management tools with the ultimate goal of improving the sustainability of urban environments for wildlife and advancing human well-being through reconnecting urbanites with nearby nature. I explore the links between human management of the urban forest (e.g. yards, neighborhood parks and open space) and the health and success of native wildlife populations, and how these impacts subsequently feedback to influence people due to the role of biodiversity in delivering ecosystem services. I seek opportunities to explain scientific findings to varying audiences while trying to facilitate connections between the publics' personal lives and the urban ecosystem.
Why This Research is ImportantMost people see the urban and suburban landscape as a concrete jungle, devoid of wildlife, but I see potential wildlife habitat that could reverse the loss of biodiversity in urban areas while simultaneously providing positive interactions between people and nature. Given that by 2050 more than 80% of the world population will live in urban and suburban areas, this view becomes an essential tenet in the field of applied ecology, conservation biology and wildlife management. At the heart of my research, I aim to make my work relevant to the end users including environmental practitioners, landscape planners, urban foresters and the public, to more effectively implement change in policy and human behaviors that promote biodiversity.
- University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Ph.D. Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, 2011
- Antioch University New England, M.S. Conservation Biology, 2005
- University of Delaware, B.S. American History, 1994
- Citizen Science Association (2014 - Current)
- The Wildlife Society (2011 - Current)
- Ecological Society of America (2005 - Current)
- American Ornithological Society (2002 - Current)
Diversity and Inclusion Committee
Awards & Recognition
- Elected Member, American Ornithological Society, 2017
- National Science Foundation SEES Fellowship, 2012
- Switzer Environmental Fellowship, 2010
Featured Publications & Products
- Lerman, Susannah B.; D'Amico, Vincent. 2019. Lawn mowing frequency in suburban areas has no detectable effect on Borrelia spp. vector Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). PLOS ONE
- Warren, Paige S.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Andrade, Riley ; Larson, Kelli L.; Bateman, Heather L. 2019. The more things change: species losses detected in Phoenix despite stability in bird-socioeconomic relationships. Ecosphere
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Contosta, Alexandra R. 2019. Lawn mowing frequency and its effects on biogenic and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Landscape and Urban Planning
- Lerman, Susannah B.; King, David I; Arendt, Wayne ; Paulina María M., ; Paulino, Luis R. 2019. Mourning dove nest on a Palmchat colony in urban Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The Urban Naturalist. 24: 1-5.
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Contosta, Alexandra R.; Milam, Joan; Bang, Christofer. 2018. To mow or to mow less: Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards. Biological Conservation
- Aronson, Myla F.J.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Evans, Karl L.; Goddard, Mark A.; Lerman, Susannah B.; MacIvor, J. Scott; Nilon, Charles H.; Vargo, Timothy. 2017. Biodiversity in the city: key challenges for urban green space management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
- Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Aronson, Myla F. J.; Evans, Karl L.; Goddard, Mark A.; Lerman, Susannah B.; MacIvor, J. Scott. 2017. Biodiversity in the City: Fundamental Questions for Understanding the Ecology of Urban Green Spaces for Biodiversity Conservation. BioScience
- Groffman, Peter M.; Avolio, Meghan; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Bettez, Neil D.; Grove, J. Morgan; Hall, Sharon J.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Larson, Kelli L.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Locke, Dexter H.; Heffernan, James B.; Morse, Jennifer L.; Neill, Christopher; Nelson, Kristen C.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Pataki, Diane E.; Polsky, Colin; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Trammell, Tara L. E. 2017. Ecological homogenization of residential macrosystems. Nature Ecology & Evolution
- Goddard, Mark A.; Ikin, Karen ; Lerman, Susannah B. 2017. Ecological and Social Factors Determining the Diversity of Birds in Residential Yards and Gardens. In: Murgui, Enrique; Hedblom, Marcus, eds. Ecology and Conservation of Birds in Urban Environments. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG: 371-397.
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Milam, J. 2016. Bee fauna and floral abundance within lawn-dominated suburban yards in Springfield, MA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 11 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saw043.
Publications & Products
- Goddard, Mark A.; Davies, Zoe G.; Guenat, Solène ; Ferguson, Mark J.; Fisher, Jessica C.; Akanni, Adeniran ; Ahjokoski, Teija ; Anderson, Pippin M. L.; Angeoletto, Fabio ; Antoniou, Constantinos ; Bates, Adam J.; Barkwith, Andrew ; Berland, Adam ; Bouch, Christopher J.; Rega-Brodsky, Christine C.; Byrne, Loren B.; Cameron, David ; Canavan, Rory ; Chapman, Tim ; Connop, Stuart ; Crossland, Steve ; Dade, Marie C.; Dawson, David A.; Dobbs, Cynnamon ; Downs, Colleen T.; Ellis, Erle C.; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Gobster, Paul ; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Guneralp, Burak ; Hahs, Amy K.; Hale, James D.; Hassall, Christopher ; Hedblom, Marcus ; Hochuli, Dieter F.; Inkinen, Tommi ; Ioja, Ioan-Cristian ; Kendal, Dave ; Knowland, Tom ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Langdale, Simon J.; Lerman, Susannah B.; MacGregor-Fors, Ian ; Manning, Peter ; Massini, Peter ; McLean, Stacey ; Mkwambisi, David D.; Ossola, Alessandro ; Luque, Gabriel Pérez; Pérez-Urrestarazu, Luis ; Perini, Katia ; Perry, Gad ; Pett, Tristan J.; Plummer, Kate E.; Radji, Raoufou A.; Roll, Uri ; Potts, Simon G.; Rumble, Heather ; Sadler, Jon P.; de Saille, Stevienna ; Sautter, Sebastian ; Scott, Catherine E.; Shwartz, Assaf ; Smith, Tracy ; Snep, Robbert P. H.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Van de Voorde, Tim ; Venn, Stephen J.; Warren, Philip H.; Washbourne, Carla-Leanne ; Whitling, Mark ; Williams, Nicholas S. G.; Yang, Jun ; Yeshitela, Kumelachew ; Yocom, Ken P.; Dallimer, Martin. 2021. A global horizon scan of the future impacts of robotics and autonomous systems on urban ecosystems. Nature Ecology & Evolution
- Larson, Kelli L.; Fleeger, Melissa ; Lerman, Susannah B.; Wheeler, Megan M.; Andrade, Riley ; Brown, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Sharon J.; Narango, Desiree L. 2021. Who is abuzz about bees? Explaining residents' attitudes in Phoenix, Arizona. Urban Ecosystems
- Lerman, Susannah ; D'Amico, Vince ; Rodbell, Phillip. 2021. What are the birds and bees telling us?. City Trees. July/August: 34-37.
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Narango, Desiree L.; Andrade, Riley ; Warren, Paige S.; Grade, Aaron M.; Straley, Katherine. 2021. Wildlife in the city: human drivers and human consequences. In: Barbosa, Pedro, ed. Urban ecology: its nature and challenges. Boston, MA: CABI Publishing: 37-66.
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Pejchar, Liba ; Benedict, Lauryn ; Covino, Kristen M.; Dickinson, Janis L.; Fantle-Lepczyk, Jean E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Vleck, Carol. 2021. Juggling parenthood and ornithology: A full lifecycle approach to supporting mothers through the American Ornithological Society. Ornithological Applications
- Andrade, Riley ; Franklin, Janet ; Larson, Kelli L.; Swan, Christopher M.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Bateman, Heather L.; Warren, Paige S.; York, Abigail. 2020. Predicting the assembly of novel communities in urban ecosystems. Landscape Ecology
- Brown, Jeffrey A.; Larson, Kelli L.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Childers, Daniel L.; Andrade, Riley ; Bateman, Heather L.; Hall, Sharon J.; Warren, Paige S.; York, Abigail M. 2020. Influences of Environmental and Social Factors on Perceived Bio-Cultural Services and Disservices. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
- Contosta, Alexandra R.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Xiao, Jingfeng ; Varner, Ruth K. 2020. Biogeochemical and socioeconomic drivers of above- and below-ground carbon stocks in urban residential yards of a small city. Landscape and Urban Planning
- Lerman, Susannah B.; DeLuca, William V. 2020. Landscape and yard-scale characteristics drive house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nest site selection in the northeastern USA. Urban Naturalist. 36: 1-11.
- Lerman, Susannah B. 2020. Less mowing, more buzzing: 'lazy lawn mowers' create a buzz for bee conservation. The Wildlife Professional. 14(3): 28-31.
- Padullés Cubino, Josep ; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine ; Groffman, Peter M.; Avolio, Meghan L.; Bratt, Anika R.; Hall, Sharon J.; Larson, Kelli L.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Narango, Desiree L.; Neill, Christopher ; Trammell, Tara L.E.; Wheeler, Megan M.; Hobbie, Sarah E. 2020. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional composition and homogenization of residential yard vegetation with contrasting management. Landscape and Urban Planning
- Jahn, Alex E.; Lerman, Susannah B.; Phillips, Laura M.; Ryder, Thomas B.; Williams, Emily J. 2019. First tracking of individual American Robins (Turdus migratorius) across seasons. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology
- Kane, Brian; Warren, Paige S.; Lerman, Susannah B. 2015. A broad scale analysis of tree risk, mitigation and potential habitat for cavity-nesting birds. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 14(4): 1137-1146.
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Sonti, Nancy F. 2015. U.S. Forest Service and partners deliver urban wildlife research in support of conservation and management. Cities and the Environment. 8(1): article 2. (3 p.).
- Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; DeStefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd. 2014. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential. Landscape and Urban Planning. 122: 29-40.
Strohbach, M., S.B. Lerman and P.S. Warren. 2013. Are small urban greening areas enhancing bird diversity? Insights from community-driven greening projects from Boston. Landscape and Urban Planning 114: 69-79.
Lerman, S.B., P.S. Warren, H. Gan, and E. Shochat. 2012. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard composition. PLoS ONE 7(8): e43497. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043497.
Lerman, S.B., V.K. Turner, and C. Bang. 2012. Homeowners Associations as a vehicle for promoting urban biodiversity: A case study from Phoenix, AZ. Ecology and Society 17(4): 45.
Warren, P.S., R. Ryan, S.B Lerman, K. Tooke. 2011. Social and institutional factors associated with land use and forest conservation along two urban gradients in Massachusetts. Landscape and Urban Planning 102: 82-92.
Lerman, S.B. and P.S. Warren. 2011. The conservation value of residential landscapes: Exploring the links between birds and people. Ecological Applications 21: 1327-1339.
Shochat, E., S.B. Lerman, J.M Anderies, P.S. Warren, S.H. Faeth, and C.H. Nilon. 2010. Invasion, competition, and biodiversity loss in urban ecosystems. BioScience 60: 199-208.
Warren, P.S., S. Harlan, C. Boone, S.B. Lerman, E. Shochat, and A.P. Kinzig. 2010. Urban Ecology and Social Organization. Pp. 172-201 in: K. Gaston, editor. Urban Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Shochat, E., S.B. Lerman and E. Fernandez-Juricic. 2010. Birds in urban ecosystems: Population dynamics, community structure, biodiversity and conservation. Pp. 75-86 in: J.A. Aitkenhead Peterson and A. Volder, eds. Urban Ecosystem Ecology. Agronomy Monograph 55, Madison, WI.
Warren, P.S., S.B. Lerman and N.D. Charney. 2008. Plants of a feather: Spatial autocorrelation of gardening practices in suburban neighborhoods. Biological Conservation 141: 3-4.
Atwood, J.L. and S.B. Lerman. 2007. Vocal variations in coastal Cactus Wrens: should coastal California populations be protected under the U. S. Endangered Species Act? Western Birds 38: 29-46.
Atwood, J.L. and S.B. Lerman. 2006. Family Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers). Pp. 350-377 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Christie, D.A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Shochat, E., S.B. Lerman, M. Katti, and D. Lewis. 2004. Linking optimal foraging behavior to bird community structure in an urban-desert landscape: field experiments with artificial food patches. American Naturalist 164: 232-243.