Scientists & Staff
- The Kings River Experimental Watershed (KREW) is being developed to: (1) quantify the variability in characteristics of stream ecosystems and their associated watersheds in the southern Sierra Nevada; and (2) evaluate the effects of forest management (prescribed fire and uneven-aged, small group tree thinning) on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems.
- Forest Structure from Remotely Sensed Imagery. Radar and laser altimetry (Lidar) are being investigated for their ability to characterize forest structure at multiple spatial scales. Such data could be used for monitoring changes in forests and for describing habitat for organisms such as owls, goshawks, and fisher.
My general research interests are in (1) stream ecosystems and watersheds and (2) landscape ecology.
In the future, I plan to continue examining ecosystems holistically at the watershed scale, rather than as a series of disparate parts. I also will be evaluating approaches to managing forests that are subjected to multiple stressors, such as climate change and air pollution.
Past ResearchThe Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Project was established in 1994 to investigate the use of management tools, prescribed fire and uneven-aged, small group tree thinning, for creating a landscape mosaic that mimics the historical distribution of vegetation resulting from frequent, low-intensity fires prevalent before European settlement of the West. It is a joint effort between Pacific Southwest Research Station and the Sierra National Forest. Several long-term research studies exist within the Project: California spotted owl demographic study (11 years), forest bird study (7 years), and Kings River Experimental watershed (KREW) study (2 years).
- University of California, D.Env. Doctor of Environmental Science and Engineering, 1980
- Loma Linda University, M.A. Biology, 1976
- Pacific Union College, B.S. Biology, 1974
- Ecological Society of America (1993 - current)
- Institute of Professional Environmental Practice (1994 - current)
- American Geophysical Union
- Association for Women in Science
- Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society
- American Institute of Biological Sciences
- Water Environment Federation
- Ecological Society of America
- International Association for Landscape Ecology
Awards & Recognition
- Award, 1997 YWCA Tribute to Women Award in science and technology, Knoxville, TN,
- Award, 1997 Distinguished and Sustained Scientific Contributions Award, East Tennessee Chapter of Association for Women in Science
- Award, 1994 Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Technical Achievement Award
- Award, 1991 Service Award, Water Pollution Control Federation
- Award, 1987 Distinguished Service Award, East Tennessee Chapter of Association for Women in Science
Featured Publications & Products
- Liu, Fengjing; Hunsaker, Carolyn; Bales, Roger C. 2012. Controls of streamflow generation in small catchments across the snow-rain transition in the southern Sierra Nevada, California. Hydrological Processes. 14 p. [Published online]
- Johnson, D.W.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Glass, D.W.; Rau, B.M.; Roath, B.A. 2011. Carbon and nutrient contents in soils from the Kings River Experimental Watersheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. Geoderma 160: 490-502
Publications & Products
- Bart, Ryan R.; Safeeq, Mohammad ; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2020. Do fuel treatments decrease forest mortality or increase streamflow? A case study from the Sierra Nevada (USA). Ecohydrology. 14(1): e2254.
- Callahan, Russell P.; Ferrier, Ken L.; Dixon, Jean ; Dosseto, Anthony ; Hahm, W. Jesse; Jessup, Barbara S.; Miller, Scott N.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Johnson, Dale W.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Riebe, Clifford S. 2019. Arrested development: Erosional equilibrium in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, maintained by feedbacks between channel incision and hillslope sediment production. GSA Bulletin. 131(7-8): 1179-1202
- Herbst, David B.; Cooper, Scott D.; Medhurst, Robert Bruce; Wiseman, Sheila W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2019. Drought ecohydrology alters the structure and function of benthic invertebrate communities in mountain streams. Freshwater Biology. 39: L10401
- Lydersen, Jamie M.; Collins, Brandon M.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2019. Implementation constraints limit benefits of restoration treatments in mixed-conifer forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 28(7): 495-511
- Stacy, Erin M.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Johnson, Dale W.; Meding, S. Mercer; Hart, Stephen C. 2019. Stabilization mechanisms and decomposition potential of eroded soil organic matter pools in temperate forests of the Sierra Nevada, California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 124(1): 2-17
- Bales, Roger C.; Goulden, Michael L.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Conklin, Martha H.; Hartsough, Peter C.; O'Geen, Anthony T.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Safeeq, Mohammad. 2018. Mechanisms controlling the impact of multi-year drought on mountain hydrology. Scientific Reports. 8(1): 690
- Dolanc, Christopher R.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2017. The transition from riparian to upland forest plant communities on headwater streams in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, United States. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
- Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Johnson, Dale W. 2017. Concentration-discharge relationships in headwater streams of the Sierra Nevada, California. Water Resources Research. 53(9): 7869-7884
- Jepsen, S.M.; Harmon, T.C.; Meadows, M.W.; Hunsaker, C.T. 2016. Hydrogeologic influence on changes in snowmelt runoff with climate warming: Numerical experiments on a mid-elevation catchment in the Sierra Nevada, USA. Journal of Hydrology. 533: 332-342
- McCorkle, Emma P.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Johnson, Dale W.; McFarlane, Karis J.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Hart, Stephen C. 2016. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Chemical Geology. 445: 172-184
- Miller, Matthew P.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; McKnight, Diane M.; Brown, Michael G.; Gabor, Rachel S.; Hunsaker, Carolyn; Iavorivska, Lidiia; Inamdar, Shreeram; Johnson, Dale W.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Lin, Henry; McDowell, William H.; Perdrial, Julia N. 2016. Variation of organic matter quantity and quality in streams at Critical Zone Observatory watersheds. Water Resources Research. 52(10): 8202-8216
- Safeeq, Mohammad; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2016. Characterizing runoff and water yield for headwater catchments in the southern Sierra Nevada. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA)
- Son, Kyongho; Tague, Christina; Hunsaker, Carolyn. 2016. Effects of model spatial resolution on ecohydrologic predictions and their sensitivity to inter-annual climate variability. Water. 8(321): 1-20
- Stacy, E. M.; Hart, S. C.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D. W.; Berhe, A. A. 2015. Soil carbon and nitrogen erosion in forested catchments: implications for erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sequestration. Biogeosciences. 12(16): 4861-4874
- Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Long, Jonathan W. 2014. Forested riparian areas. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-247. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 323-340. Chap. 6.2
- Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Long, Jonathan W.; Herbst, David B. 2014. Watershed and stream ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-247. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 265-322. Chap. 6.1
- Long, J.W.; Skinner, Carl; North, M.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Quinn-Davidson, L. 2014. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-247. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 17-54. Chap. 1.2
- Hunsaker, Carolyn. 2013. The Kings River Experimental Watersheds: new findings about headwater streams of the southern Sierra Nevada. Mountain Views. 7(1):6-9
- Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Neary, Daniel G. 2012. Sediment loads and erosion in forest headwater streams of the Sierra Nevada, California. In: Webb, Ashley A.; Bonell, Mike; Bren, Leon; Lane, Patrick N. J.; McGuire, Don; Neary, Daniel G.; Nettles, Jami; Scott, David F.; Stednik, John; Wang, Yanhui, eds. Revisiting Experimental Catchment Studies in Forest Hydrology: Proceedings of a Workshop held during the XXV IUGG General Assembly in Melbourne, June-July 2011. IAHS Publication 353. United Kingdom: Wallingford: International Association of Hydrological Sciences. p. 195-204
- Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Whitaker, Thomas W.; Bales, Roger C. 2012. Snowmelt runoff and water yield along elevation and temperature gradients in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 48(4): 667-678
- Bales, Roger C.; Conklin, Martha H.; Kerkez, Branko; Glaser, Steven; Hopmans, Jan W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Meadows, Matt; Hartsough, Peter C. 2011. Chapter 2: Sampling strategies in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry. In: Levia, Delphis F.; Carlyle-Moses, Darryl; Tanaka, Tadashi, eds. 2011. Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions, Ecological Studies 216. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media B.V. pp. 29-44
- Bales, Roger C.; Hopmans, Jan W.; O'Geen, Anthony T.; Meadows, Matthew; Hartsough, Peter C.; Kirchner, Peter; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Beaudette, Dylan. 2011. Soil moisture response to snowmelt and rainfall in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Vadose Zone J. 10: 786-799
- Bergen, K.M.; Goetz, S.J.; Dubayah, R.O.; Henebry, G.M.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Imhoff, M.L.; Nelson, R.F.; Parker, G.G.; Radeloff, V.C. 2009. Remote sensing of vegetation 3-D structure for biodiversity and habitat: Review and implications for lidar and radar spaceborne missions . Journal of Geophysical Research 114, G00E06: 13 p
- Johnson, D.W.; Fenn, M.E.; Miller, W.W.; Hunsaker, C.T. 2009. Fire effects on carbon and nitrogen cycling in forests of the Sierra Nevada. In: Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael; Andersen, Christian; Riebau, Allen. 2009. Wildland Fires and Air Pollution. Developments in Environmental Science 8. The Netherlands: Elsevier: p. 405-423
- Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason T.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2008. Species Composition and Habitat Associations of Benthic Algal Assemblages in Headwater Streams of the Sierra Nevada, California. Western North American Naturalist. 68(2): 194-209
- Dolanc, Christopher R.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T. 2007. Riparian and upland vegetation on the Kings River Experimental Watershed, Sierra Nevada, California. In: Powers, Robert F., tech. editor. Restoring fire-adapted ecosystems: proceedings of the 2005 national silviculture workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-203, Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: p. 299
- Eagan, S.M.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Dolanc, C.R.; Lynch, M.E.; Johnson, C.R. 2007. Discharge and sediment loads at the Kings River Experimental Forest in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. In: Furniss, M.; Clifton, C.; Ronnenberg, K., eds. 2007. Advancing the fundamental sciences: proceedings of the Forest Service National Earth Sciences Conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-689. Portland, OR: U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 217-224
- Hunsaker, Carolyn; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Auman, Jessica; Cisneros, Ricardo. 2007. Air pollution and watershed research in the central Sierra Nevada of California: nitrogen and ozone. The Scientific World JOURNAL. 7: 206-221
- Hunsaker, C.T.; Eagan, S.M. 2003. Small stream ecosystem variability in the Sierra Nevada of California. In: Renard, K.G.; McElroy, S.A.; Gburek, W.J.; Canfield, H.E.; Scott, R.L., eds. First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. Benson, AZ: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 716-721.
- Schiller, A.; Hunsaker, Carolyn; Kane, M.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Dale, V.H.; Suter, G.W.; Russell, C.S.; Pion, G.; Jensen, N.H.; Konar, V.C. 2001. Communicating Ecological Indicators to Decision Makers and the Public. Conservation Ecology. 5(1):19
- Fortin, M.-J.; Olson; R.J.; Ferson, S.; Iverson, L.; Hunsaker, C.; Edwards, G.; Levine, D.; Butera, K.; Klemas, V.; Klemas, V. 2000. Issues related to the detection of boundaries. Landscape Ecology. 15: 453-466.
- O'Neill, Robert V.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Jones, K. Bruce; Riitters, Kurt H.; Wickham, James D.; Schwartz, Paul M.; Goodman, Iris A.; Jackson, Barbara L.; Baillargeon, William S. 1997. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale. BioScience 47(8): 513-519