Scientists & Staff
- For a Rare Prairie Orchid, Science is Making Climate Change LocalFebruary 11, 2016
One of my current broad areas of research focuses on invasive species. I have several studies with colleagues examining different aspects of how invasive species impact users and owners of forested ecosystems. Specifically, I am studying the behaviors, intentions, attitudes and assistance needs of private forest landowners in Illinois and Indiana with regard to invasive forest plant species. I'm also studying behaviors, intentions, awareness, and information needs of private landowners with regard to invasive insects in the forests of New England. Finally, I'm examining how invasive forest beetles may impact visitor site choice and recreation satisfaction in the Midwest. Drawing from these studies, I am also starting research with loggers, seeking to better understanding the impacts, information and assistance needs, and potential business opportunities that are presented by invasive forest plants. I also am studying adaptation planning strategies by maple syrup producers in the Northwoods of Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin. I also have an active line of research that utilizes data from the National Woodland Owner Survey, a long-term data collection effort for private forest landowners in the U.S. by FIA. My current research with these data is exploring how gender, being an agricultural land owner, or multi-owner ownership arrangements may influence the types of activities that occur on private forest lands. Finally, I am continuing my research to develop optimization decision models to support the agency in awarding contracts for fire-fighting helicopters.
My research has two foci. The first focuses on the development of optimization decision models that provide information useful to land managers in understanding alternatives, consequences, and tradeoffs associated with a range of land management decisions. The goal of my research is helping to facilitate more effective decision-making about how best to balance the host of environmental, social, and economic issues associated with natural resource planning, management, and decision-making. I have developed models to support planning and decision-making for selecting habitat reserve sites, open space land acquisition, scheduling timber harvests, awarding contracts for wildlife fighting equipment, and locating ATV trail corridors. My second research area focuses on private forest landowners, and seeks to understand their values, behaviors, attitudes and responsiveness to assistance, incentive and policy programs. My private forest landowner research has focused on adoption of stewardship practices, carbon market participation, enrollment in assistance programs, and most recently, implementation of invasive forest plant management activities. I also am interested in understanding factors associated with private forest parcelization, or the division of forestland into smaller ownership holdings.
Why This Research is ImportantMy research improves our understanding of private forest landowners and what they do and think about their forestland. My research can be used to better develop and deliver assistance and incentive programs to help these landowners meet their personal ownership goals, and to help private forestlands deliver important societal forest-based goods and services. My research also helps managers determine efficient strategies, informs them about the consequences of their choices, and identifies the trade-offs inherent in complex land use and management decision-making. With this information, managers can make more effective decisions about how best to balance a host of competing objectives, priorities and goals inherent in land management.
- Society of American Foresters (SAF)
- Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS)
Featured Publications & Products
- Habesland, Daniel E.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Becker, Dennis R.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Solberg, Birger; Sjolie, Hanne K.; Lindstad, Berit H. 2016. Norwegian family forest owners' willingness to participate in carbon offset programs. Forest Policy and Economics. 70: 30-38.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2016. Lake States natural resource managers' perspectives on forest land parcelization and its implications for public land management. Land Use Policy. 59: 320-328.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Haight, Robert G. 2016. Application of the maximal covering location problem to habitat reserve site selection: a review. International Regional Science Review. 39(1): 28-47.
- Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A. 2015. State forestry agency perspectives on carbon management and carbon market assistance to family forest owners. Journal of Forestry. 113(4): 372-380.
Publications & Products
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Ma, Zhao ; Floress, Kristin ; Clarke, Mysha. 2020. Relationships between absenteeism, conservation group membership, and land management among family forest owners. Land Use Policy
- Blinn, Charles R.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Russell, Matthew B.; Peterson, Rachel R. 2019. Status of the Minnesota logging sector in 2016. Staff Paper #251. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources. 105 p.
- Clarke, Mysha ; Ma, Zhao ; Snyder, Stephanie ; Floress, Kristin. 2019. What are family forest owners thinking and doing about invasive plants?. Landscape and Urban Planning
- Floress, Kristin ; Huff, Emily S.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Koshollek, Alanna ; Butler, Sarah ; Allred, Shorna B. 2019. Factors associated with family forest owner actions: A vote-count meta-analysis.Landscape and Urban Planning. Landscape and Urban Planning
- Frey, Gregory E.; Meier, Justin T.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Blinn, Charles R. 2019. Factors associated with family forest landowner enrollment in state preferential forest property tax programs in the United States. Land Use Policy
- Huff, Emily S.; Floress, Kristin ; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Ma, Zhao ; Butler, Sarah. 2019. Where farm and forest meet: Comparing National Woodland Owner Survey respondents with and without farmland. Land Use Policy
- Meier, Justin T.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Frey, Gregory E.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Blinn, Charles R. 2019. A comparison of participants and non-participants of state forest property tax programs in the United States. Forest Policy and Economics
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Butler, Brett J.; Markowski-Lindsay, Marla. 2019. Small-Area Family Forest Ownerships in the USA. Small-scale Forestry
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Emery, Marla R.; Schmitz, Marissa. 2019. Maple Syrup Producers of the Lake States, USA: Attitudes Towards and Adaptation to Social, Ecological, and Climate Conditions. Environmental Management
- Arnberger, Arne; Ebenberger, Martin; Schneider, Ingrid E.; Cottrell, Stuart; Schlueter, Alexander C.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Venette, Robert C.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Gobster, Paul H. 2018. Visitor preferences for visual changes in bark beetle-impacted forest recreation settings in the United States and Germany. Environmental Management. 61(2): 209-223.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A. 2018. The influence of multiple ownership interests and decision-making networks on the management of family forest lands: evidence from the United States. Small-scale Forestry. 17(1): 1-23.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Emery, Marla R.; Schmitz, Marissa. 2018. A Profile of Lake States Maple Syrup Producers and Their Attitudes and Responses to Economic, Social, Ecological and Climate Challenges. University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, Staff Paper Series No. 248. 70 p.
- Arnberger, Arne; Schneider, Ingrid E.; Ebenberger, Martin; Eder, Renate; Venette, Robert C.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Gobster, Paul H.; Choi, Ami; Cottrell, Stuart. 2017. Emerald ash borer impacts on visual preferences for urban forest recreation settings. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
- Butler, Brett J.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2017. National Woodland Owner Survey: family forest ownerships with 1 to 9 acres, 2011-2013. Resour. Bull. NRS-114. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 9 p.
- Butler, Sarah M.; Huff, Emily S.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Butler, Brett J.; Tyrrell, Mary. 2017. The Role of Gender in Management Behaviors on Family Forest Lands in the United States. Journal of Forestry
- Klenosky, David B.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Vogt, Christine A.; Campbell, Lindsay K. 2017. If we transform the landfill, will they come? Predicting visitation to Freshkills Park in New York City. Landscape and Urban Planning
- Andrejczyk, Kyle; Butler, Brett J.; Dickinson, Brenton J.; Hewes, Jaketon H.; Markowski-Lindsay, Marla A.; Kittredge, David B.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Catanzaro, Paul F. 2016. Family Forest Owners' Perceptions of Landowner Assistance programs in the USA: A Qualitative Exploration of Program Impacts on Behaviour. Small-scale Forestry. 15(1): 17-28.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2016. Exploring the relationship between parcelization metrics and natural resource managers' perceptions of forest land parcelization intensity. Landscape and Urban Planning. 149: 43-48.
- Phillips-Mao, Laura; Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Haight, Robert G. 2016. Model-based scenario planning to develop climate change adaptation strategies for rare plant populations in grassland reserves. Biological Conservation. 193: 103-114.
- Sjolie, Hanne K.; Becker, Dennis; Habesland, Daniel; Solberg, Birger; Lindstad, Berit Hauger; Snyder, Stephanie; Kilgore, Mike. 2016. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy. Small-scale Forestry. 15(1): 29-43.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Eryilmaz, Derya; Markowski-Lindsay, Marla A.; Butler, Brett J.; Kittredge, David B.; Catanzaro, Paul F.; Hewes, Jaketon H.; Andrejczyk, Kyle. 2015. Assessing the relationship between different forms of landowner assistance and family forest owner behaviors and intentions. Journal of Forestry. 113(1): 12-19.
- Vogt, Christine A.; Klenosky, David B.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Campbell, Lindsay K. 2015. Resident support for a landfill-to-park transformation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 33(4): 32-50.
- Butler, Brett J.; Hewes, Jaketon H.; Liknes, Greg C.; Nelson, Mark D.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2014. A comparison of techniques for generating forest ownership spatial products. Applied Geography. 46: 21-34.
- Butler, Brett J.; Markowski-Lindsay, Marla; Snyder, Stephanie; Catanzaro, Paul; Kittredge, David B.; Andrejczyk, Kyle; Dickinson, Brenton J.; Eryilmaz, Derya; Hewes, Jaketon H.; Randler, Paula; Tadle, Donna; Kilgore, Michael A. 2014. Effectiveness of landowner assistance activities: an examination of the USDA Forest Service's Forest Stewardship Program. Journal of Forestry. 112(2): 187-197.
- Hewes, Jaketon H.; Butler, Brett J.; Liknes, Greg C.; Nelson, Mark D.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2014. Map of distribution of six forest ownership types in the conterminous United States. Res. Map NRS-6. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. [Scale 1: 10,000,000, 1: 34,000,000.]
- Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Mike A.; Davenport, Mae A. 2014. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA. Environmental Management. 54(6): 1399-1411.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Block-Torgerson, Kayla; Taff, Steven J. 2013. Challenges in characterizing a parcelized forest landscape: why metric, scale and threshold matter. Landscape and Urban Planning. 110: 36-47.
- Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A. 2012. An assessment of forest landowner interest in selling forest carbon credits in the Lake States, USA. Forest Policy and Economics. 25: 113-122.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Butler, Brett J. 2012. A national assessment of public recreational access on family forestlands in the United States. Journal of Forestry. 110(6): 318-327.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Stockmann, Keith D.; Morris, Gaylord E. 2012. An optimization modeling approach to awarding large fire support wildfire helicopter contracts from the US Forest Service. Forest Science. 58(2): 130-138.
- Becker, Dennis R.; Wilson, Grant L.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2010. Private forest landowner attitudes toward off-highway vehicle access: A Minnesota case study. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 27(2): 62-67.
- Mundell, J.; Taff, S.J.; Kilgore, M.A.; Snyder, S.A. 2010. Using real estate records to assess forest land parcelization and development: A Minnesota case study. Landscape and Urban Planning. 94: 71-76.
- Allen, Stewart D.; Wickwar, Denise A.; Clark, Fred P.; Dow, Robert R.; Potts, Robert; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2009. Values, beliefs, and attitudes technical guide for Forest Service land and resource management, planning, and decision-making. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-788. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 112 p
- Haight, Robert G.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2009. Integer programming methods for reserve selection and design. In: Moilanen, Atte; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Possingham, Hugh, eds. Spatial conservation prioritization. Quantitative methods and computational tools. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press: 43-57. Chapter 4.
- Miller, James R.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Skibbe, A.M.; Haight, Robert G. 2009. Prioritizing conservation targets in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning. 93: 123-131.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Taff, Steven J.; Schertz, Joseph. 2009. Does forest land posted against trespass really mean no hunter access?. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 14: 251-264.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Smail, Robert A. 2009. Are all-terrain vehicle riders willing to pay trail user fees to ride on public lands in the USA?. Tourism Economics. 15(2): 437-451.
- Toth, Sandor F.; Haight, Robert; Snyder, Stephanie A.; George, Sonney; Miller, James R.; Gregory, Mark S.; Skibbe, Adam M. 2009. Reserve selection with minimum contiguous area restrictions: An application to open space protection planning in suburban Chicago. Biological Conservation. 142(8): 1617-1627.
- Baker, Lawrence A.; Schussler, Johanna E.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2008. Drivers of change for lakewater clarity. Lake and Reservoir Management. 24: 30-40.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Schertz, Joesph M.; Taff, Steven J. 2008. The cost of acquiring public hunting access on family forests lands. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 13: 175-186.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Schertz, Joseph; Taff, Steven J. 2008. What does it take to get family forest owners to enroll in a forest stewardship-type program?. Forest Policy and Economics. 10: 507-514.
- Kilgore, Michael A.; Snyder, Stephanie; Taff, Steven; Schertz, Joseph. 2008. Family forest stewardship: do owners need a financial incentive?. Journal of Forestry. October/November: 357-362.
- Marianov, Vladimir; ReVelle, Charles; Snyder, Stephanie. 2008. Selecting compact habitat reserves for species with differential habitat size needs. Computers & Operations. 35: 475-487.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Hudson, Rachel; Donnay, Jacob. 2008. Influence of purchaser perceptions and intentions on price for forest land parcels: a hedonic pricing approach. Journal of Forest Economics. 14: 47-72.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Taff, Steven J.; Schertz, Joseph M. 2008. Estimating a family forest landowner's likelihood of posting against trespass. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 25(4): 180-185.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Whitmore, Jay H.; Schneider, Ingrid E.; Becker, Dennis R. 2008. Ecological criteria, participant preferences and location models: A GIS approach toward ATV trail planning. Applied Geography. 28: 248-258.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Hudson, Rachel; Donnay, Jacob. 2007. Determinants of forest land prices in northern Minnesota: a hedonic pricing approach. Forest Science. 53(1): 25-36.
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Miller, James R.; Skibbe, Adam M.; Haight, Robert G. 2007. Habitat acquisition strategies for grassland birds in an urbanizing landscape. Environmental Management. 40: 981-992.
- Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Polasky, Stephen; Starfield, Anthony; Palik, Brian; Westphal, Lynn; Snyder, Stephanie; Jakes, Pamela; Hudson, Rachel; Gustafson, Eric. 2006. A Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Cost-Effective Water Quality Management in Lakes. Environmental Management Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 411-425
- Haight, Robert G.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Revelle, Charles S. 2005. Metropolitan open-space protection with uncertain site availability. Conservation Biology 19:327-337.
- Stone, Brian; Obermann, William; Snyder, Stephanie. 2005. A new method for estimating and projecting vehicle miles of travel--linkages to landscape change and ozone impacts to northern forests.. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-253. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 24 p.
- Williams, Justin C.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2005. Restoring habitat corridors in fragmented landscapes using optimization and percolation models. Environmental Modeling and Assessment (2005) 10: 239-250
- Marianov, Vladimir; Snyder, Stephanie ; ReVelle, Charles. 2004. Trading off species protection and timber production in forests managed for multiple objectives. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 2004, volume 31, pages 847-862
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Haight, Robert G.; ReVelle, Charles S. 2004. A scenario optimization model for dynamic reserve site selection. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 9: 179?187, 2004.
- Snyder, Stephanie; ReVelle, Charles; Haight, Robert. 2004. One- and two-objective approaches to an area-constrained habitat reserve site selection problem. Biological Conservation 119 (2004) 565?574
- Haight, Robert G.; Revelle, Charles S.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2000. An Integer Optimization Approch To A Probabilistic Reserve Site Selection Problem. INFORMS. Vol. 48 no. 5.:p. 697-708. (2000)
- Snyder, Stephanie A.; Tyrrell, Lucy E.; Haight, Robert G. 1999. An optimization approach to selecting research natural areas in National Forests. Forest science. Vol. 45, no. 3 (Aug. 1999).:p. 458-469 : ill., maps.
- Hewes, Jaketon H.; Butler, Brett J.; Liknes, Greg C.; Nelson, Mark D.; Snyder, Stephanie A. 2014. Public and private forest ownership in the conterminous United States: distribution of six ownership types - geospatial dataset. Fort Collins, CO: Forest Service Research Data Archive. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0002.
National Research Highlights
Although women are the primary decision-makers for more than 44 million acres of forest land in the United States and influence the land management decisions on many more acres, little is known about whether or how their management attitudes, behaviors, and intentions may differ from those of their male counterparts. Recognizing differences between male and female forest landowners is important for understanding constraints and barriers and should be considered in the design of forestry programs and outreach.
What happens to neighboring public forest lands when a piece of privately held forest land is split into multiple ownership pieces, a process that scientists call "parcelization"? Forest Service social scientist Stephanie Snyder, along with colleagues at the University of Minnesota, explored this question by gathering information from natural resource managers who work for public agencies in the Lake States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.
Forest Service researchers, along with their research partners from the University of Minnesota, are helping land managers answer key questions about how to apply large-scale climate change information to very precise habitat.
City parks are easy to love, but would you love, or visit, a park that used to be a landfill? As part of a team that included the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation and university partners, Forest Service social scientists Lindsay Campbell and Stephanie Snyder explored public response to Freshkills Park, the largest landfill-to-park transformation ever undertaken in the United States.
Trees remove carbon from the planet’s atmosphere through photosynthesis and sequester carbon in their wood. Private landowners can manage their forests in ways that enhance carbon storage and even receive payment for specific management activities by participating in forest carbon markets. But given the complexity and expense in undertaking these activities, many forest landowners need technical assistance from professionals. Forest Service scientists and their colleagues at the University of Minnesota surveyed state agencies to determine what help they provide to private forest landowners who request assistance in managing their woods and selling carbon credits. They also collected information on current capacities of state governments to provide such assistance.
Study Assesses Private Forest Landowner Attitudes Towards Forest Carbon Management and Carbon Credit Trading
Forest lands, if managed in certain ways, can store excess atmospheric carbon, a key contributor to global climate change. This accumulated carbon can be sold as carbon credits in a carbon market, provided a number of program requirements are met. However, little is known about private landowner interest in managing lands for carbon storage or participating in carbon markets. Forest Service research found that private forest landowners with favorable attitudes toward carbon management or carbon market participation may view these activities as the vehicle by which other forest goals can be met.
The nation's family forest lands have the potential to be an important contributor to carbon sequestration efforts, but only if their owners are willing to manage to enhance carbon sequestration. Yet little is known about whether family forest owners are even interested in doing this or how they view programs that enable them to sell forest carbon credits. Forest Service scientists surveyed family forest owners in the Upper Midwest and found that many forest owners may be more interested in simply managing for carbon than meeting the conditions required to formally sell carbon credits.
Scientists review opportunities, constraints, and possibilities for relieving recreational pressure on public lands
Aviation managers desired ways to add more rigor, reliability and transparency to the process. NRS researcher Stephanie Snyder was part of a team that created a suite of optimization decision models and a database system. These tools greatly enhanced the efficiency and credibility of the award process and allowed for explicit consideration of trade-offs between quality and cost of contract assignments.