Scientists & Staff
Paul H. Gobster
- 2017-present 'Stakeholder Perceptions of Northern Dry Forest and Barrens Restoration Treatments' (Northern Research Station Research Joint Venture Agreement with University of Minnesota, BOKU University, and University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point)
- 2016-present 'Landowner survey, Buckthorn Eradication Project: Landscape Scale Restoration and Enhancement Within and Surrounding Middlefork Savanna' (for Lake Co., IL Forest Preserve District)
- 2016-present 'Pilot study, Use Monitoring of Chicago's 606 Trail' (for The Trust for Public Lands, in cooperation with Chicago Park District, Chicago Department of Transportation, Alliance for Active Transportation, and University of Minnesota)
- 2015-present 'Building rural community resilience in context of protected grasslands' (USDA-NIFA grant with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
- 2015-present 'Assessing the Benefits of Chicago's Large Lot Program' (Northern Research Station Research Joint Venture Agreement with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in partnership with City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development)
- 2015-present 'Landowner and Visitor Response to Forest Landscape Restoration: The Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project' (Northern Research Station Research Joint Venture Agreement with University of Wisconsin-Steven Point)
- 2014-present 'Assessing the relative importance of emerald ash borer infestation on recreation choices via stated choice modelling' (Northern Research Station Research Joint Venture Agreement with University of Minnesota)
- 2009-2014 'Collaborative Research: Coupled Natural Human Systems in the Chicago Wilderness: Evaluating the Biodiversity and Social Outcomes of Different Models of Restoration Planning' (NSF Coupled Human and Natural Systems)
Research InterestsMy research broadly addresses the question: How can we design, plan for, and manage landscapes to sustain mutually beneficial relationships between people and ecological systems? The context for much of my work has been park and forest landscapes in urban and wildland settings. I am focusing on three interrelated topic areas: Perception and experience of landscapes: how people perceive and experience parks and forests, including issues of aesthetics, psychological restoration, and physical activity. Meanings of nature: how nature is understood and valued by different individuals and stakeholder groups and how these values can be incorporated into landscape restoration and management. Access and equity issues: how knowledge of the cultural dimensions of landscape to provide better and more equitable access to nature, leisure, and open space opportunities for diverse populations.
Why This Research is Important
Social issues are increasingly at the forefront of environmental management decisions. Urban populations can be particularly diverse. If we can understand the range of perceptions and values that exist, we will help provide environmental managers the information they need to make decisions that are beneficial to all stakeholders concerned.
- Department Of Landscape Architecture University Of Wisconsin, Madison (2017 - Current)
- Landscape Research (2016 - Current)
- Landscape and Urban Planning (2015 - Current)
- Environmental Design Research Association (2008 - Current)
- Natural Areas Association (2008 - Current)
- International Association for Society and Natural Resources (2007 - Current)
- Environment and Behavior (2006 - Current)
- Environmental Policy and Culture Program, Northwestern University (2006 - Current)
- Society for Ecological Restoration International (2000 - Current)
- American Society of Landscape Architects (Fellow) (1987 - Current)
- Ecological Restoration (2000 - 2014)
- Journal Of Leisure Research (2006 - 2010)
- Landscape Journal (2003 - 2010)
- Local Environment (1999 - 2005)
Awards & Recognition
- Outstanding Paper Award, 2017 Transportation Research Board, Committee on Highway Traffic Monitoring, for 'Up on The 606: Understanding Use of a New Elevated Pedestrian and Bicycle Tail in Chicago' (with Sonya Sachdeva and Greg Lindsey)
- Distinguished Alumnus Award, 2013 University of Wisconsin-Madison Dept Landscape Architecture
- Fellow, 2009 American Society of Landscape Architects (knowledge category)
- Certificate of Merit, 2008 Honorable Mention as Outstanding Paper in Landscape Ecology for 'The shared landscape: What does aesthetics have to do with ecology?' (with Joan Nassauer, Terry Daniel, and Gary Fry)
- Public Recognition Award, 2007 Outstanding Professional Achievement, American Society of Landscape Architects, Illinois Chapter
- Honor Award (Research), 2006 American Society of Landscape Architects, 'From Landscapes to Lots: Understanding and Managing Midwestern Landscape Change' (with Bob Haight)
- Distinguished Professorship, 2004 Beatrix C. Farrand Visiting Distinguished Professor of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Plan
- Merit Award (Research), 2001 American Society of Landscape Architects (Senior editor, 'Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities')
- Communication Award, 2001 Society for Ecological Restoration (Senior editor, 'Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities'
- Multicultural Achievement Award, 2000 North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service, for leadership in the Chicago Rivers National Demonstration Project (with Lynne Westphal)
- Honor Award, 2000 American Society of Landscape Architects, Visualizing and Testing Views of a Changing Policy Landscape, Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon (research project supervisor)
- Merit Award, 1999 American Society of Landscape Architects, People and the River: Perception and Use of Chicago Waterways for Recreation (co-principal investigator)
- Merit Award (Research), 1998 American Society of Landscape Architects, Perception of Clearcutting in the White Mountains (research project supervisor)
- Honor Award (Research), 1996 American Society of Landscape Architects, Lincoln Park Framework Plan (Ethnicity and Visual Preference research projects)
Publications & Products
- Arnberger, Arne; Ebenberger, Martin; Schneider, Ingrid E.; Cottrell, Stuart; Schlueter, Alexander C.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Venette, Robert C.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Gobster, Paul H. 2018. Visitor preferences for visual changes in bark beetle-impacted forest recreation settings in the United States and Germany. Environmental Management. 61(2): 209-223.
- Floress, Kristin; Haines, Anna; Usher, Emily; Gobster, Paul; Dockry, Mike. 2018. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Center for Land Use Education; and University of Wisconsin Extension. 57 p.
- Arnberger, Arne; Schneider, Ingrid E.; Ebenberger, Martin; Eder, Renate; Venette, Robert C.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Gobster, Paul H.; Choi, Ami; Cottrell, Stuart. 2017. Emerald ash borer impacts on visual preferences for urban forest recreation settings. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
- Gobster, Paul H.; Sachdeva, Sonya; Lindsey, Greg. 2017. Up on The 606. Understanding the Use of a New Elevated Pedestrian and Bicycle Trail in Chicago, Illinois. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
- Gobster, Paul H.; Floress, Kristin; Westphal, Lynne M.; Watkins, Cristy A.; Vining, Joanne; Wali, Alaka. 2016. Resident and user support for urban natural areas restoration practices. Biological Conservation. 203: 216-225.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2015. A social science perspective on the forest preserves: Seven virtues for connecting people and nature. In: Celebrating 100 Years of beauty in the forest preserves. Proceedings of a symposium; 2015 May 28; Chicago, IL. River Forest, IL: Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois: 26-29.
- Watkins, Christy; Westphal, Lynne M.; Gobster, Paul H.; Vining, Joanne; Wali, Alaka; Tudor, Madeleine. 2015. Shared principles of restoration practice in the Chicago wilderness region. Human Ecology Review. 21(1): 155-177.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2014. Re-wilding Europe's traditional agricultural landscapes: Values and the link between science and practice. Landscape and Urban Planning. 126: 65. [an editorial introduction].
- Gobster, Paul H. 2014. (Text) Mining the LANDscape: Themes and Trends over 40 years of Landscape and Urban Planning. Landscape and Urban Planning. 126: 21-30. [editorial].
- Westphal, Lynne M.; Watkins, Cristy; Gobster, Paul H.; Heneghan, Liam; Ross, Kristen; Ross, Laurel; Tudor, Madeleine; Wali, Alaka; Wise, David H.; Vining, Joanne; Zellner, Moira. 2014. Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-138. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 116 p.
- Daniel, Terry C.; Muhar, Andreas; Arnberger, Arne; Aznar, Olivier; Boyd, James W.; Chan, Kai M.A.; Costanza, Robert; Elmqvist, Thomas; Flint, Courtney G.; Gobster, Paul H.; Gret-Regamey, A.; Lave, R.; Muhar, S.; Penker, M.; Ribe, R.G.; Schauppenlehner, T.; Sikor, T.; Soloviy, I.; Spierenburg, M.; Taczanowska, K.; Tam, J.; von der Dunk, A. 2012. Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(23): 8812-8819.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2012. Alternative approaches to urban natural areas restoration: integrating social and environmental goals. Chapter 8. In: Stanturf, J.; Lamb, D.; Madsen, P., eds. Forest landscape restoration: integrating natural and social sciences. New York: Springer. World Forests. 15: 155-177.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Xiang, Wei-Ning. 2012. Editorial: A revised aims and scope for Landscape and Urban Planning: an international journal of landscape and design. Landscape and Urban Planning. 106(4): 289-292.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Xiang, Wei-Ning. 2012. Editorial: Progress and prospects. Landscape and Urban Planning. 105(1-2): 2-4.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Xiang, Wei-Ning. 2012. Editorial: What do we mean by "landscape"?. Landscape and Urban Planning. 106: 219-220.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Xiang, Wei-Ning. 2012. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning. Landscape and Urban Planning. 106: 1-5.
- Suau, Luis J.; Floyd, Myron F.; Spengler, John O.; Maddock, Jay E.; Gobster, Paul H. 2012. Energy Expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks in 2 cities. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice
- Gobster, Paul H. 2011. Landscape and urban planning at 100: Looking back moving forward. Landscape and Urban Planning. 100(4): 315-317.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2011. Appreciating urban wildscapes: Towards a natural history of unnatural places. Chapter 2. In: Jorgensen, Anna; Keenan, Richard., eds. Urban wildscapes. London: Routledge: 33-48.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2011. Factors affecting people's response to invasive species management. In: Rotheram, I.; Lambert, R., eds. Invasive and introduced plants and animals: Human perceptions, attitudes and approaches to management. 16. London: Earthscan: 249-263.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2010. Urban ecological restoration (Introduction to a special theme issue). Nature and Culture. 5(3): 227-230.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2010. Models for urban forest restoration: Human and environmental values. In: Stanturf, John, ed. Proceedings of the IUFRO conference on forest landscape restoration; 2007 May 14-19; Seoul, Korea. Seoul, Korea: Korea Forest Research Institute: 10-13.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Buchner, David M. 2010. Healthy outdoor recreation: An integrated approach to linking physical activity with wellness goals. Chapter 38. In: Payne, L.; Ainsworth, B.; Godbey, G., eds. Leisure, health and wellness: Making the connections. State College, PA.: Venture Publishing: 437-446.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Nassauer, Joan Iverson; Nadenicek, Daniel J. 2010. Landscape Journal and scholarship in landscape architecture: the next 25 years. Landscape Journal. 29(1): 52-70.
- Jorgensen, Anna; Gobster, Paul H. 2010. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being. Nature and Culture. 5(3 ): 338-363.
- Westphal, Lynne M.; Gobster, Paul H.; Gross, Matthias. 2010. Models for renaturing brownfield areas [Chapter 19]. In: Hall, Marcus, ed. Restoration and history: The search for a usable environmental past. New York, NY: Routledge: 208-217.
- Haight, Robert G.; Gobster, Paul H. 2009. Social and economic considerations for planning wildlife conservation in large landscapes. In: Millspaugh, J.J.; Thompson, F.R., eds. Models for planning wildlife conservation in large landscapes. Burlington, MA: Academic Press: 123-152).
- Gobster, Paul H. 2008. Yellowstone Hotspot. Reflections on scenic beauty, ecology, and the aesthetic experience of landscape. Landscape Journal 27:2-08: 291-308.
- Buchner, David M.; Gobster, Paul H. 2007. Promoting active visits to parks: models and strategies for transdisciplinary collaboration. Journal of Physical Activity & Health. 4(1): S36-S49.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2007. Comment on "Ethnicity as a variable in leisure research" by Li et al.. Journal of Leisure Research. 39(3): 546-553.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2007. Urban park restoration and the "museumification" of nature. Nature and Culture. 2(2): 95-114.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2007. Models for urban forest restoration: human and environmental values. In: Stanturf, J., ed. Proceedings of the IUFRO Conference on Forest Landscape Restoration; 2007 May 14-19; Seoul, Korea. Seoul: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations and Korea Forest Research Institute: 10-13.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Nassauer, Joan I.; Daniel, Terry C.; Fry, Gary. 2007. The shared landscape: what does aesthetics have to do with ecology?. Landscape Ecology. 22: 959-972.
- Wagner, Mimi M.; Gobster, Paul H. 2007. Interpreting landscape change: measured biophysical change and surrounding social context. Landscape and Urban Planning. 81: 67-80.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2005. Invasive Species as Ecological Threat: Is Restoration an Alternative to Fear-based Resource Management?. Ecological Restoration, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005
- Gobster, Paul H. 2005. Recreation and leisure research from an active living perspective: taking a second look at urban trail use data. Leisure Sciences, 27: 367-383
- Gobster, Paul H. 2004. An Active Living Perspective on Recreation Research: Examples of Urban Trail Use and Suggestions for Further Involvement. Proceedings of the Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research Symposium; 2004 February 4-6; San Francisco, California. San Francisco State University. 22-28
- Gobster, Paul H.; Haight, Robert G. 2004. From landscapes to lots: understanding and managing Midwestern landscape change.. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-245. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 60 p.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Rickenbach, Mark G. 2004. Private forestland parcelization and development in Wisconsin's Northwoods: perceptions of resource-oriented stakeholders. Landscape and Urban Planning 69(2004): 165-182
- Gobster, Paul H.; Stewart, Susan I.; Bengston, David N. 2004. The social aspects of landscape change: protecting open space under the pressure of development. Landscape and Urban Planning 69 (2004) 149-151
- Gobster, Paul H.; Westpahl, Lynne M. 2004. The human dimensions of urban greenways: planning for recreation and related experiences. Landscape and Urban Planning 68:147-165
- Rickenbach, Mark G.; Gobster, Paul H. 2003. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Parcelization in Wisconsin's Northwoods. Journal of Forestry 101(6):18-23
- Ruliffson, Jane A.; Haight, Robert G.; Gobster, Paul H.; Homans, Frances R. 2003. Metropolitan natural area protection to maximize public access and species representation. Environmental Science and Policy 6:291-299
- Gobster, Paul H. 2002. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Leisure Sciences. Volume 24. 2002. pp. 143-159
- Gobster, Paul H. 2002. Ervin Zube and landscape architecture. Landscape Architecture. Volume 92. Issue 8. 2002. pp. 62, 64-65, 92-93.
- Ribe, Robert G.; Armstrong, Edward T.; Gobster, Paul H. 2002. Scenic Vistas and the Changing Policy Landscape: Visualizing and Testing the Role of Visual Resources in Ecosystem Management. Landscape Journal 21(1):42-66
- Ruliffson, Jane A.; Gobster, Paul H.; Haight, Robert G.; Homans, Francis R. 2002. Niches in the urban forest: Organizations and their role in acquiring metropolitan open space.. Journal of Forestry: 100(6):16-23.
- Whitcomb, Lisa; Parker, Dennis; Carr, Bob; Gobster, Paul; Schroeder, Herb. 2002. Human preference for ecological units: patterns of dispersed campsites within landtype associations on the Chippewa National Forest. In: Todd, Sharon, comp., ed. 2002. Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 429-434.
- Gobster, Paul H. 2001. Forests and landscapes: linking ecology, sustainability and aesthetics. In: Sheppard, S.R.J.; Harshaw, H. W., eds. Forests and landscapes: linking ecology, sustainability and aesthetics. New York, NY: CABI Publishing: 21-28
- Gobster, Paul H. 2001. Human dimensions of early successional landscapes in the eastern United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin. Volume 29. Issue 2. 2001. 474-482
- Gobster, Paul H. 2001. Visions of nature: conflict and compatibility. Landscape and Urban Planning 56:35-51
- Gobster, Paul H. 2001. Neighbourhood-open space relationships in metropolitan planning: a look across four scales of concern. Local Environment 6(2):199?212
- Gobster, Paul H.; Hull, R. Bruce. 2001. Restoring nature: continuing the conversation. Ecological Restoration 19(4):225-226
- Gobster, Paul H. 2000. Restoring Nature: Human Actions, Interactions and reactions. Introduction: Human Actions Interactions, and Reactions. p. 1-20. (2000)
- Gobster, Paul H.; Barro, Susan C. 2000. Negotiating nature: Making Restoration Happen In An Urban Park Context. Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities, pp. 185-208. Washington, DC: Island Press.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Haight, Robert G.; Shriner, Dave. 2000. Landscape Change in the Midwest: An Integrated Research and Development Program. Journal of Forestry. Vol. 98 no. 3.:p. 9-15. (2000)
- Gobster, Paul H.; Haight, Robert G.; Shriner, David S. 2000. Integrated Research on Midwestern Landscape Change: A Program Description and Progress Report. Fragmentation 2000 Conference. p. 375-382. (2000)
- Gobster, Paul H.; Schmidt, Thomas L. 2000. The Use of Amenity Indicators in Anticipating Private Forestland Parcelization: A Look at the Lake States' Northwoods. Fragmentation 2000 Conference. p. 170-181. (2000)
- Hull, Bruce R.; Gobster, Paul H. 2000. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension. Journal of Forestry. Volume 98. Issue 8. 2000. pp. 32-36
- Gobster, Paul H. 1999. An ecological aesthetic for forest landscape management. Landscape Journal. 18(1): 54-64. (1999)
- Gobster, Paul H.; Hull, Bruce. 1999. The restoration and management of nature: A conference and forthcoming book explore restoration from the perspectives of the social science and humanities. Biological Restoration. 17(1&2): 44-51. (1999)
- Gobster, P. H.; Westphal, L. M. 1998. People and the River: Perception and Use of Chicago Waterways for Recreation.. Misc. Publ., Milwaukee, WI: U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program.
- Gobster, Paul H. 1998. Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks. Landscape and Urban Planning 41:43-55
- Gobster, Paul H.; Westphal, Lynne M. 1998. People and the river: perception and use of Chicago waterways for recreation.. Chicago Rivers Demonstr. Proj. Rep. Milwaukee, WI: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program. 192 p.
- Zhang, Tingwei; Gobster, Paul H. 1998. Leisure preferences and open space needs in an. Journal of Architectural Planning and Research 15(4);338-355
- Gobster, Paul H. 1997. The Chicago wilderness and its critics: the other side: a survey of arguments. Restoration and Management Notes 15(1):32-37
- Gobster, Paul H. 1996. Forest aesthetics, biodiversity, and the perceived appropriateness of ecosystem management practices. In: Brunson, Mark W.; Kruger, Linda E.; Tyler, Catherine B.; Schroeder, Susan A., tech. eds. Defining social acceptability in ecosystem management: a workshop proceedings; 1992 June 23-25, Kelso, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-369. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 77-97.
- Gobster, Paul H.; Dickhut, Kathleen E. 1995. Exploring interspace: open space opportunities in dense urban areas. In: Kollin, Cheryl; Barrett, Michael, eds. Inside Urban Ecosystems: Proceedings of the 7th National Urban Forestry Conference. New York, NY. American Forests, Washington DC. 70-73.
- Gobster, Paul H. 1993. Managing urban and high-use recreation settings.. General Technical Report NC-163. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
- Schroeder, Herbert ; Gobster, Paul H.; Frid, Ross. 1993. Visual quality of human-made clearings in central Michigan conifers.. Research Paper NC-313. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
- Dwyer, John F.; Gobster, Paul H. 1992. Black/white outdoor recreation preferences and participation: Illinois State Parks. In: Vander Stoep, Gail A., ed. 1992. Proceedings of the 1991 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 1991 April 7-9; Saratoga Springs, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-160. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 20-24.
- Dwyer, John F.; Schroeder, Herbert W.; Gobster, Paul H. 1991. Central hardwood forest resources: a social science perspective. In: McCormick, Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 2-14.
- Dwyer, John F.; Schroeder, Herbert W.; Gobster, Paul H. 1991. The significance of urban trees and forests: toward a deeper understanding of values. Journal of Arboriculture 17(10):276-284
- Chenoweth, Richard E.; Gobster, Paul H. 1990. The nature and ecology of aesthetic experiences in the landscape. Landscape Journal 9(1):1-8
National Research Highlights
Monitoring use of a new elevated trail in Chicago provides important information to city managers. Preliminary results suggest that "The 606" has created connections between historically segregated neighborhoods, meeting and exceeding city managers’ objectives.
Resident and visitor beliefs about whether a given restoration practice, such as controlled burning, is already being used at a site can be a powerful predictor of support for that practice.
NRS researchers Paul Gobster and Lynne Westphal and a German colleague, Matthias Gross, analyzed urban restoration projects and developed several alternative models that articulate the various possible types of restoration projects.
NRS scientist Paul Gobster examined how the perceptions of Latino residents in two inner-city Chicago neighborhoods affected their use of outdoor recreation environments and how they responded.