Rotation age is affected by many factors including site quality, desired product, stocking, and intensity of forest management activity. Generally, for production management purposes, the rotation age for red pine is between 60 to 90 years, as defined by culmination of mean annual volume growth increment. However, red pine is a long-lived species, providing opportunities to grow and manage stands for up to 200 years and individual trees to even greater ages. In fact, longer rotations, exceeding 100 to 150 years, have become more common on public lands and when managing for large diameter sawtimber.
Table 1. Rotation ages calculated at various site indices and densities for red pine.
Source: Unpublished red pine yield tables for managed plantations and natural stands in the Lake States. Computer program developed by A.L. Lundgren (1971), from growth and yield studies at the Northern Conifers Laboratory.
1 International ¼ inch board boot volumes in trees 9 inches d.b.h. and larger to a 6 inch top d.i.b.
2 Mean annual growth did not culminate prior to 153 years of age in these high density stands.