Recovery periods between regeneration harvests are needed for development of significant structural and compositional complexity in red pine stands. Today red pine stands are often harvested before significant levels and types of complexity have developed. In general, economic rotation ages, typically 50-90 years, are shorter than those required to develop complex stand structures. If the primary management objective is enhancement of older forest habitat features and associated species diversity and development of ecological complexity, then longer than economic rotation ages are appropriate. Thus the primary determinant of intermediate harvest or rotation age in such cases would be the development of desired or acceptable levels of structural complexity, compositional diversity, and within-stand heterogeneity.