Good general references on insects associated with red pine are Wilson (1977), Goulding and others (1988), and Rose and others (1999). These references provide information on identification, insect biology, and some management recommendations. Nicholls and Skilling (1990) is a pocket guide that includes the majority of red pine diseases of significance.
General references on red pine pests
Nicholls, T.H., and D.D. Skilling. 1990. Pocket
guide to red pine
diseases and their
management. USDA Forest Service. 41 p.
Goulding, H. A., D. J. Hall, K. F. Raffa, and A. J. Martin. 1988. Wisconsin woodlands identifying and managing pine pests in Wisconsin . University of Wisconsin-Extension, Publication G3428.
Rose, A. H., O. H. Lindquist, and K. L. Nystrom. 1999. Insects of eastern pines. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Publication 1313.
Sinclair, W.A., H.H. Lyon, and W.T. Johnson. 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY. 574 p.
Wilson, L. F. 1977. A guide to insect injury of conifers in the Lake States. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 501.
References on red pine needle pests
Kearby, W. H., and D. M. Benjamin. 1964. The biology and ecology of the red-pine needle midge and its role in fall browning of red-pine foliage. Canadian Entomologist 96:1313-1322.
Kulman, H. M., and A. C. Hodson. 1961. The jack-pine budworm as a pest of other conifers with special reference to red pine. Journal of Economic Entomology 54:1221-1224.
Wilson, L. F., R. C. Wilkinson, and R. C. Averill. 1992. Redheaded pine sawfly-its ecology and management. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 694.
Sreenivasam, D. D., D. M. Benjamin, and D. D. Walgenbach. 1972. The bionomics of the pine tussock moth. University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Natural Resources, Research Bulletin 282.
References on red pine shoot and branch pests
Hainze, J. H., and D. M. Benjamin. 1984. Impact of the red pine shoot moth, Dioryctria resinosella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on height and radial growth in Wisconsin red pine plantations. Journal of Economic Entomology 77:36-42.
Katovich, S. A., and D. J. Hall. 1992. How
to identify and
minimize red pine
shoot moth damage. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, NA-FR-01-92.
Miller, W. E. 1967. The European pine shoot moth-ecology and control in the Lake States. Forest Science Monograph 14:1-72.
Nicholls, T.H., and M.E. Ostry. 1990. Sphaeropsis sapinea cankers on stressed red and jack pines in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Plant Disease 74:54-56.
Ostry, M.E., T.H. Nicholls, and D.D. Skilling. 1990. Biology and control of Sirococcus shoot blight on red pine. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-295. 11 p.
Skilling, D.D., B. Schneider, and D. Fasking. 1986. Biology and control of Scleroderris canker in North America. USDA Forest Service Res. Pap. NC-275. 18 p.
Wilson, L. F. 1987. Saratoga spittlebug-its ecology and management. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 657.
References on red pine root and root collar pests
Fowler, R. F., and L. F. Wilson. 1971. White grub populations, Phyllophaga spp., in relation to damaged red pine seedlings in Michigan and Wisconsin plantations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Michigan Entomologist 4:23-28.
Klepzig, K. D., K. F. Raffa, and E. B. Smalley. 1991. Association of an insect-fungal complex with red pine decline in Wisconsin. Forest Science 37:1119-1139.
Stanosz, G.R., and J. Cummings Carlson. 1996. Association of mortality of recently planted seedlings and established saplings in red pine plantations with Sphaeropsis collar rot. Plant Dis. 80:750-753.
Wilson, L. F., and I. Millers. 1983. Pine
root collar weevil-its
ecology and management. USDA Forest Service, Technical Bulletin No. 1675.
References on red pine main stem pests
Schenk, J.A. and D.M. Benjamin. 1969. Notes on the biology of Ips pini in central Wisconsin jack pine forests. Annal of the Entomological Society of America. 62:480-485.
References on red pine cone and seed pests
Mattson, W. J. 1980. Cone resources and the ecology of the red pine cone beetle, Conophthorus resinosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Annals Entomological Society of America 73:390-396.
Miller, W. E. 1978. Use of prescribed burning in seed production areas to control red pine cone beetle. Environmental Entomologist 7:698-702.