Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire

Weather station and momitoring equipment atop a hill at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.

The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest was established in 1955 as a major center for hydrologic research in New England. Located in the White Mountain National Forest in central New Hampshire, the 3,138-ha bowlshaped Hubbard Brook Valley has hilly terrain, ranging in elevation from 222 to 1,015 m. The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study was established by a cooperative agreement in 1963. In 1988 the Hubbard Brook was designated as a Long-Term Ecological Research site by the National Science Foundation.

Climate

Annual precipitation at Hubbard Brook averages about 1,400 mm, with one-third to one-quarter as snow. The month of January averages about -9 °C and the average July temperature is 18 °C. The average number of days without killing frost is 145. The estimated annual evapotranspiration is about 500 mm.

Soils

Soils at the Hubbard Brook are predominantly welldrained Spodosols (Typic Haplorthods) derived from glacial till, with sandy loam textures. They are acidic (pH about 4.5 or less) and relatively infertile (base saturation of mineral soil ~ 10 percent). Soil depths, including unweathered till, average about 2.0 m surface to bedrock, though this is highly variable. Depth to the C horizon averages about 0.6 m. At various places, the C horizon exists as an impermeable pan.

Vegetation

The present second-growth forest is even-aged and composed of about 80 to 90 percent northern hardwoods and 10 to 20 percent spruce-fir.

Research, Past and Present

At Hubbard Brook, the following topics are being studied:

  • The role of calcium supply in regulating the structure and function of base-poor forest and aquatic ecosystems
  • Animal populations and communities
  • Colder soils in a warmer world: a snow manipulation in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem
  • Stream ecosystems
  • A spatial model of soil parent material
  • Modeling effects of acid deposition, forest disturbance, and soil chemistry on forest production and streamwater quality
  • Remote sensing for measurement of canopy nitrogen and calcium content, and estimation of forest production and stream chemistry
  • Landscape-scale controls on N retention and N gas fluxes in the Hubbard Brook Valley
  • Nutrient uptake at the ecosystem scale
  • Carbon and calcium controls on microbial biomass and invertebrate grazers
  • Comparison of δ 15N and nitrification potential across a nitrate-loss gradient
  • Response of northern hardwood forests to nutrient perturbation
  • Edaphic controls on the structure and function of the northern hardwood forest
  • Vegetation dynamics and primary productivity

Major Research Accomplishments and Effects on Management

At Hubbard Brook, the following subjects have been researched:

  • Small watershed technique for studying biogeochemistry
  • Factors regulating nutrient flux and cycling in northern hardwood forests
  • First documentation of acid rain in North America
  • Effects of forest harvesting disturbance on water quality and quantity
  • Long-term effects of acid rain on soil nutrient pools and streamwater chemistry
  • Relationship of interior forest bird populations and communities to forest structure and development
  • Development and application of ecosystem process models:
    • 1) hydrological,
    • 2) forest growth and development, and
    • 3) soil nutrient processes

Collaborators

At Hubbard Brook, collaborators include scientists from other Forest Service research units, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Brown University, Dartsmouth College, Syracuse University, Cornell University, University of Michigan, Yale University, Appalachian State University, State University of New York-Environmental Science and Forestry, USDI Geological Survey, Wellesley College, University of New Hampshire, and Smithsonian Institution.

Research Opportunities

The Hubbard Brook staff welcomes new studies and collaboration on existing ones. There is a need for expanded cooperative research in the fields of soil physics and forest hydrology.

Facilities

The Robert S. Pierce Ecosystem Laboratory located at Hubbard Brook provides 835 m2 of space, including six offices, four laboratories, a conference room, six dormitory rooms, and a kitchen, baths, and showers. There is also a sample archive building and maintenance, storage, garage, and shop facilities.

Lat. 43°56′ N, long. 71°45′ W

Contact Information

Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
USDA Forest Service
Northern Research Station
271 Mast Road
Durham, NH 03824

Contact: Lindsey Rustad

Research Results

Campbell, John L.; Rustad, Lindsey E.; Bailey, Scott W.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Green, Mark B.; Groffman, Peter M.; Lovett, Gary M.; McDowell, William H.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Rosi, Emma J. 2021. Watershed studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Building on a long legacy of research with new approaches and sources of data. Hydrological Processes

Green, Mark B.; Pardo, Linda H.; Bailey, Scott W.; Campbell, John L.; McDowell, William H.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Rosi, Emma J. 2021. Predicting high‐frequency variation in stream solute concentrations with water quality sensors and machine learning. Hydrological Processes

Valipour, Mahnaz ; Johnson, Chris E.; Battles, John J.; Campbell, John L.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fakhraei, Habibollah ; Driscoll, Charles T. 2021. Simulation of the effects of forest harvesting under changing climate to inform long-term sustainable forest management using a biogeochemical model. Science of The Total Environment

Campbell, John L.; Rustad, Lindsey E.; Garlick, Sarah ; Newman, Noah ; Stanovick, John S.; Halm, Ian ; Driscoll, Charles T.; Barjenbruch, Brian L.; Burakowski, Elizabeth ; Hilberg, Steven D.; Sanders, Kristopher J.; Shafer, Jason C.; Doesken, Nolan J. 2020. A Comparison of Low-Cost Collector Configurations for Quantifying Ice Accretion. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology

Fraser, Olivia L.; Bailey, Scott W.; Ducey, Mark J.; McGuire, Kevin J. 2020. Predictive modeling of bedrock outcrops and associated shallow soil in upland glaciated landscapes. Geoderma

Hansen, Christopher F.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Strong, Allan M.; Rayback, Shelly A.; Hawley, Gary J. 2020. LiDAR Helps Differentiate Stand Health and Productivity Levels within a Northern Hardwood Forest. Open Journal of Forestry

Possinger, Angela R.; Bailey, Scott W.; Inagaki, Thiago M.; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid ; Dynes, James J.; Arthur, Zachary A.; Lehmann, Johannes. 2020. Organo-mineral interactions and soil carbon mineralizability with variable saturation cycle frequency. Geoderma

Sahu, Sujit K.; Bakar, K. Shuvo; Zhan, Jinran ; Campbell, John L.; Yanai, Ruth D. 2020. Spatio-temporal Bayesian modeling of precipitation using rain gauge data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Joint Statistical Meetings Proceedings, Statistical Computing Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association: 77-92.

See, Craig R.; Green, Mark B.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Bailey, Amey S.; Campbell, John L.; Hayward, Jeremy. 2020. Quantifying uncertainty in annual runoff due to missing data. PeerJ. 8(20): e9531. 14 p. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9531.

Wilson, Geoffrey ; Green, Mark ; Brown, John ; Campbell, John ; Groffman, Peter ; Durán, Jorge ; Morse, Jennifer. 2020. Snowpack affects soil microclimate throughout the year. Climatic Change

Yanai, Ruth D.; Yang, Yang ; Wild, Adam D.; Smith, Kevin T.; Driscoll, Charles T. 2020. New Approaches to Understand Mercury in Trees: Radial and Longitudinal Patterns of Mercury in Tree Rings and Genetic Control of Mercury in Maple Sap. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

Ager, Alan A.; Day, Michelle A.; Palaiologou, Palaiologos ; Houtman, Rachel M.; Ringo, Chris ; Evers, Cody R. 2019. Cross-boundary wildfire and community exposure: A framework and application in the western U.S.. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-392. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 36 p.

Bailey, Scott W.; Long, Robert P.; Horsley, Stephen B. 2019. Comment on "Long-term decline of sugar maple following forest harvest, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire". Canadian Journal of Forest Research

Casson, N.J. ; Contosta, A.R. ; Burakowski, E.A. ; Campbell, J.L. ; Crandall, M.S. ; Creed, I.F. ; Eimers, M.C. ; Garlick, S.; Lutz, D.A. ; Morison, M.Q. ; Morzillo, A.T. ; Nelson, S.J. 2019. Winter Weather Whiplash: Impacts of Meteorological Events Misaligned With Natural and Human Systems in Seasonally Snow‐Covered Regions. Earth's Future

Fahey, Timothy J.; Schaberg, Paul G. 2019. Forest physiology and phenology. Chapter 14. In: Fahey, T.J., ed. Synthesis of scientific research at Hubbard Brook. Woodstock ,VT: Hubbard Brook Research Founcation.

Weitzman, Julie N.; Groffman, Peter M.; Campbell, John L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fahey, Robert T.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Rustad, Lindsey E. 2019. Ecosystem Nitrogen Response to a Simulated Ice Storm in a Northern Hardwood Forest. Ecosystems

Green, Mark B.; Campbell, John L.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Bailey, Scott W.; Bailey, Amey S.; Grant, Nicholas; Halm, Ian; Kelsey, Eric P.; Rustad, Lindsey E. 2018. Downsizing a long-term precipitation network: Using a quantitative approach to inform difficult decisions. PLOS ONE

Groffman, Peter M.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Durán, Jorge ; Campbell, John L.; Christenson, Lynn M.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fisk, Melany C.; Fuss, Colin ; Likens, Gene E.; Lovett, Gary ; Rustad, Lindsey ; Templer, Pamela H. 2018. Nitrogen oligotrophication in northern hardwood forests. Biogeochemistry

Minogue, Patrick J.; Brodbeck, Brent V; Miller, James H. 2018. Biology and control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) in southern forests. This document is FR342, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension.

Valipour, Mahnaz ; Driscoll, Charles T.; Johnson, Chris E.; Battles, John J.; Campbell, John L.; Fahey, Timothy J. 2018. The application of an integrated biogeochemical model to simulate dynamics of vegetation, hydrology and nutrients in soil and streamwater following a whole-tree harvest of a northern hardwood forest. Science of The Total Environment

Yang, Yang; Yanai, Ruth D.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T. 2018. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA. PLOS ONE

Benettin, Paolo; Bailey, Scott W.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Likens, Gene E.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Botter, Gianluca. 2017. Young runoff fractions control streamwater age and solute concentration dynamics. Hydrological Processes

Bourgault, Rebecca R.; Ross, Donald S.; Bailey, Scott W.; Bullen, Thomas D.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Gannon, John P. 2017. Redistribution of soil metals and organic carbon via lateral flowpaths at the catchment scale in a glaciated upland setting. Geoderma

Christenson, Lynn ; Clark, Hannah ; Livingston, Laura ; Heffernan, Elise ; Campbell, John ; Driscoll, Charles ; Groffman, Peter ; Fahey, Timothy ; Fisk, Melany ; Mitchell, Myron ; Templer, Pamela H. 2017. Winter Climate Change Influences on Soil Faunal Distribution and Abundance: Implications for Decomposition in the Northern Forest. Northeastern Naturalist

Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L.; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Campbell, John L.; Christenson, Lynn M.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fisk, Melany C.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Groffman, Peter M. 2017. Differential sensitivity to climate change of C and N cycling processes across soil horizons in a northern hardwood forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry

Gannon, John P.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Bailey, Scott W.; Bourgault, Rebecca R.; Ross, Donald S. 2017. Lateral water flux in the unsaturated zone: A mechanism for the formation of spatial soil heterogeneity in a headwater catchment. Hydrological Processes

Templer, Pamela H.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Sanders-DeMott, Rebecca ; Sorensen, Patrick O.; Juice, Stephanie M.; Bowles, Francis ; Sofen, Laura E.; Harrison, Jamie L.; Halm, Ian ; Rustad, Lindsey ; Martin, Mary E.; Grant, Nicholas ; Rixen, Christian. 2017. Climate change across seasons experiment (CCASE): A new method for simulating future climate in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems. PLoS ONE

Campbell, John; Yanai, Ruth D.; Green, Mark B.; Likens, Gene E.; See, Craig R.; Bailey, Amey S.; Buso, Donald C.; Yang, Daqing. 2016. Uncertainty in the net hydrologic flux of calcium in a paired-watershed harvesting study. Ecosphere. 7(6): e01299. 15 p. 10.1002/ecs2.1299

Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L.; Groffman, Peter M.; Campbell, John L.; Christenson, Lynn M.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fisk, Melany C.; Likens, Gene E.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A.; Peters, D. P. C. 2016. Climate change decreases nitrogen pools and mineralization rates in northern hardwood forests. Ecosphere

Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Driscoll, Charles T.; Campbell, John L.; Hayhoe, Katharine; Stoner, Anne M. K. 2016. The effects of climate downscaling technique and observational data set on modeled ecological responses. Ecological Applications

Puntsag, Tamir; Mitchell, Myron J.; Campbell, John L.; Klein, Eric S.; Likens, Gene E.; Welker, Jeffrey M. 2016. Arctic Vortex changes alter the sources and isotopic values of precipitation in northeastern US. Scientific Reports

Benettin, Paolo; Bailey, Scott W.; Campbell, John L.; Green, Mark B.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Likens, Gene E.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Botter, Gianluca. 2015. Linking water age and solute dynamics in streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA. Water Resources Research. 51(11): 9256-9272.

Bourgault, Rebecca R.; Ross, Donald S.; Bailey, Scott W. 2015. Chemical and morphological distinctions between vertical and lateral podzolization at Hubbard Brook. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 79(2): 428-439.

Fahey, Timothy J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Anderson, Bruce T.; Battles, John J.; Campbell, John L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fusco, Anthony R.; Green, Mark B.; Kassam, Karim-Aly S.; Rodenhouse, Nicholas L.; Rustad, Lindsey; Schaberg, Paul G.; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A. 2015. The promise and peril of intensive-site-based ecological research: insights from the Hubbard Brook ecosystem study. Ecology. 96(4): 885-901.

Fuss, Colin B.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Campbell, John L. 2015. Recovery from chronic and snowmelt acidification: Long-term trends in stream and soil water chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences

Gannon, John P.; Bailey, Scott W.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Shanley, James B. 2015. Flushing of distal hillslopes as an alternative source of stream dissolved organic carbon in a headwater catchment. Water Resources Research. 51: 8114-8128.

Gillin, Cody P.; Bailey, Scott W.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Gannon, John P. 2015. Mapping of hydropedologic spatial patterns in a steep headwater catchment. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 79(2): 440-453.

Green, Mark B.; Laursen, Bethany K.; Campbell, John L.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Kelsey, Eric P. 2015. Stable water isotopes suggest sub-canopy water recycling in a northern forested catchment. Hydrological Processes. 29(25): 5193-5202.

Halman, Joshua M.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Hawley, Gary J.; Hansen, Christopher F.; Fahey, Timothy J. 2015. Differential impacts of calcium and aluminum treatments on sugar maple and American beech growth dynamics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 45(1): 52-59.

Yanai, Ruth D.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Campbell, John L.; Green, Mark B.; Matsuzaki, Eiji; Laseter, Stephanie N.; Brown, Cindi L.; Bailey, Amey S.; Lyons, Pilar; Levine, Carrie R.; Buso, Donald C.; Likens, Gene E.; Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Fukushima, Keitaro. 2015. Sources of uncertainty in estimating stream solute export from headwater catchments at three sites. Hydrological Processes. 29(7): 1793-1805.

Bailey, Scott W.; Brousseau, Patricia A.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Ross, Donald S. 2014. Influence of landscape position and transient water table on soil development and carbon distribution in a steep, headwater catchment. Geoderma. 226-227: 279-289.

Butnor, John R.; Campbell, John L.; Shanley, James B.; Zarnoch, Stanley. 2014. Measuring soil frost depth in forest ecosystems with ground penetrating radar. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 192-193:121-131

Campbell, John L.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Templer, Pamela H. 2014. Soil freezing effects on sources of nitrogen and carbon leached during snowmelt. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 78(1): 297-308.

Campbell, John L.; Socci, Anne M.; Templer, Pamela H. 2014. Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern hardwood forest. Global Change Biology. 20(8): 2663-2673.

Cawley, Kaelin M.; Campbell, John; Zwilling, Melissa; Jaffé, Rudolf. 2014. Evaluation of forest disturbance legacy effects on dissolved organic matter characteristics in streams at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Aquatic Sciences. 76(4): 611-622.

Gannon, John P.; Bailey, Scott W.; McGuire, Kevin J. 2014. Organizing groundwater regimes and response thresholds by soils: A framework for understanding runoff generation in a headwater catchment. Water Resources Research. 50(11): 8403-8419.

Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Brooks, Kenneth N.; Kolka, Randall K.; Raish, Carol B.; Neary, Daniel G. 2014. Contributions of studies on experimental forests to hydrology and watershed management [Chapter 14]. In: Hayes, D.C.; Stout, S.L.; Crawford, R.H.; Hoover, A.P., eds. USDA Forest Service experimental forests and ranges research for the long term. New York, NY: Springer. p. 311-340.

Hornbeck, James; Bailey, Amey S.; Eagar, Christopher; Campbell, John L. 2014. Comparisons with results from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the Northern Appalachians. In: Swank, Wayne T.; Webster, Jackson R., comps., eds. Long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem. Clearcutting in the southern Appalachian. Oxford University Press: 213-228.

Morse, J.L.; Werner, S.F.; Gillin, C.P.; Goodale, C.L.; Bailey, S.W.; McGuire, K.J.; Groffman, P.M. 2014. Searching for biogeochemical hot spots in three dimensions: soil C and N cycling in hydropedologic settings in a northern hardwood forest. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 119(8): 1596-1607.

Semlitsch, R.D.; O'Donnell, K.M.; Thompson, F.R. 2014. Abundance, biomass production, nutrient content, and the possible role of terrestrial salamanders in Missouri Ozark forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92: 997-1004.

Wexler, Sarah K.; Goodale, Christine L.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Bailey, Scott W.; Groffman, Peter M. 2014. Isotopic signals of summer denitrification in a northern hardwood forested catchment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(46): 16413-16418.

Boyce, Richard L.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Hawley, Gary J.; Halman, Joshua M.; Murakami, Paula F. 2013. Effects of soil calcium and aluminum on the physiology of balsam fir and red spruce saplings in northern New England. Trees. 27(6): 1657-1667.

Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fenn, Mark; McNulty, Steven; Yuan, Fengming; Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Driscoll, Charles; Meixner, Tom. 2013. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios. In: Matyssek, R.; Clarke, N.; Cudlin, P.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Wiese, G.; Paoletti, E. eds. Developments in environmental science. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 333-369. Chapter 16.

Campbell, John L.; Bailey, Amey S.; Eagar, Christopher; Green, Mark B.; Battles, John J. 2013. Vegetation treatments and hydrologic responses at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. In: Camp, A.E.; Irland, L.C.; Carroll, C.J.W., eds. Long-term silvicultural & ecological studies: Results for science and nanagement. Volume 2. Yale University, Global Institute of Sustainable Forestry, Research Paper 013: 1-9.

Green, Mark B.; Bailey, Amey S.; Bailey, Scott W.; Battles, John J.; Campbell, John L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Lepine, Lucie C.; Likens, Gene E.; Ollinger, Scott V.; Schaberg, Paul G. 2013. Reply to Smith and Shortle: Lacking evidence of hydraulic efficiency changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110(40): E3740.

Halman, Joshua M.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Hawley, Gary J.; Pardo, Linda H.; Fahey, Timothy J. 2013. Calcium and aluminum impacts on sugar maple physiology in a northern hardwood forest. Tree Physiology. 33(11): 1242-1251.

Pardo, L.H.; Semaoune, P.; Schaberg, P.G.; Eagar, C.; Sebilo, M. 2013. Patterns in δ15N in roots, stems, and leaves of sugar maple and American beech seedlings, saplings, and mature trees. Biogeochemistry. 112: 275-291.

Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C. 2013. Calcium amendment may increase hydraulic efficiency and forest evapotranspiration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110(40): E3739.

Zimmer, Margaret A.; Bailey, Scott W.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Bullen, Thomas D. 2013. Fine scale variations of surface water chemistry in an ephemeral to perennial drainage network. Hydrological Processes. 27(24): 3438-3451.

Groffman, Peter M.; Rustad, Lindsey; Templer, Pamela H.; Campbell, John; Christenson, Lynn M.; Lany, Nina K.; Socci, Anne M.; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A.; Schaberg, Paul; Wilson, Geoffrey F.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fisk, Melany C.; Goodale, Christine L.; Green, Mark B.; Hamburg, Steven P.; Johnson, Chris E.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Morse, Jennifer L.; Pardo, Linda H.; Rodenhouse, Nicholas L. 2012. Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in northern hardwood forests. BioScience. 62(12): 1056-1066

Penn, Colin A.; Wemple, Beverley C.; Campbell, John L. 2012. Forest influences on snow accumulation and snowmelt at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Hydrological Processes. 26: 2524-2534.

Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Driscoll, Charles T.; Campbell, John L.; Hayhoe, Katharine. 2012. Modeling potential hydrochemical responses to climate change and rising CO2 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest using a dynamic biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC). Water Resources Research. 48. W07514.

Reinmann, Andrew B.; Templer, Pamela H.; Campbell, John L. 2012. Severe soil frost reduced losses of carbon and nitrogen from the forest floor during simulated snowmelt: A laboratory experiment. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 44: 65-74.

Rustad, Lindsey E.; Campbell, John L. 2012. A novel ice storm manipulation experiment in a northern hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 42: 1810-1818.

Sridevi, Ganapathi; Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A.; Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Tisa, Louis S.; Minocha, Subhash C. 2012. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 79: 728-740.

Templer, Pamela H.; Schiller, Andrew F.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Socci, Anne M.; Campbell, John L.; Drake, John E.; Kunz, Thomas H. 2012. Impact of a reduced winter snowpack on litter arthropod abundance and diversity in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 48(4): 413-424.

Yanai, Ruth D.; Levine, Carrie R.; Green, Mark B.; Campbell, John L. 2012. Quantifying uncertainty in forest nutrient budgets. Journal of Forestry. 110(8): 448-456.

Campbell, John L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Hayhoe, Katharine. 2011. Streamflow responses to past and projected future changes in climate at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Water Resources Research. 47: W02514. doi:10.1029/2010WR009438

Jannusch, Chris A.; Chandra, Sudeep; Dudley, Tom; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Trowbridge, Wendy. 2011. Meadow-stream processes and aquatic invertebrate community structure [chapter 6]. In: Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Jerry R., eds. Geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology of Great Basin meadow complexes - implications for management and restoration. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 85-94.

Riley, L. E; Haase, D. L.; Pinto, J. R. 2011. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2010. Proc. RMRS-P-65. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.183 p. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_p065.html.

Schaberg, Paul G.; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Halman, Joshua M.; Hawley, Gary J.; Eagar, Christopher. 2011. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season. Trees. 25: 1053-1061.

Belyazid, Salim; Bailey, Scott; Sverdrup, Harald. 2010. Past and future effects of atmospheric deposition on the forest ecosystem at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: simulations with the dynamic model ForSAFE. In: Hanrahan, G., ed. Modelling of pollutants in complex environmental systems, volume II. Gloucester, England: ILM Publications: 357-377. Chapter 12.

Campbell, John L.; Ollinger, Scott V.; Flerchinger, Gerald N.; Wicklein, Haley; Hayhoe, Katharine; Bailey, Amey S. 2010. Past and projected future changes in snowpack and soil frost at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Hydrological Processes. 24: 2465-2480.

Carey, Sean K.; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Seibert, Jan; Soulsby, Chris; Buttle, Jim; Laudon, Hjalmar; McDonnell, Jeff; McGuire, Kevin; Caissie, Daniel; Shanley, Jamie; Kennedy, Mike; Devito, Kevin; Pomeroy, John W. 2010. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: snychronicity, resistance and resilience. Hydrological Processes. 24: 3591-3602

Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Minocha, Subhash C.; Eagar, Christopher; Driscoll, Charles T. 2010. Elevation dependent sensitivity of northern hardwoods to Ca addition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 260: 2115-2125.

Schaberg, Paul G.; Hawley, Gary J. 2010. Disruption of calcium nutrition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire) alters the health and productivity of red spruce and sugar maple trees and provides lessons pertinent to other sites and regions. In: Rentch, James S.; Schuler, Thomas M., eds. 2010. Proceedings from the conference on the ecology and management of high-elevation forests in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains. 2009 May 14-15; Slatyfork, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-64. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 190-200.

Riscassi, Amy L.; Scanlon, Todd M. 2009. Nitrate variability in hydrological flow paths for three mid-Appalachian forested watersheds following a large-scale defoliation.. Journal of Geophysical Research doi: 10.1029/2008JG000860.

Cartron, Jean-Luc E.; Hawksworth, David L.; Finch, Deborah M. 2008. First records of the Brown Creeper breeding along the middle Rio Grande in central New Mexico. Western Birds. 39: 176-178.

Dumroese, Kas; Riley, L. E. 2008. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations-2007. Proc. RMRS-P-57. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 174 p.

Halman, Joshua M.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Hawley, Gary J.; Eagar, Christopher. 2008. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens). Tree Physiology 28:855-862

Park, Byung Bae; Yanai, Ruth D.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Bailey, Scott W.; Siccama, Thomas G.; Shanley, James B.; Cleavitt, Natalie L. 2008. Fine Root Dynamics and Forest Production Across a Calcium Gradient in Northern Hardwood and Conifer Ecosystems. Ecosystems. 11(2): 325-341.

Campbell, John L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Eagar, Christopher; Likens, Gene E.; Siccama, Thomas G.; Johnson, Chris E.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Hamburg, Steven P.; Holmes, Richard T.; Bailey, Amey S.; Buso, Donald C. 2007. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-17. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 41 p.

Campbell, John L.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Mayer, Bernhard; Groffman, Peter M.; Christenson, Lynn M. 2007. Mobility of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrate and sulfur-34-labeled sulfate during snowmelt. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 71: 1934-1944.

Huggett, Brett A.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Hawley, Gary J.; Eager, Christopher. 2007. Long-term calcium addition increases growth release, wound closure, and health of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37:1692-1700

Hawley, Gary J.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Eagar, Christopher; Borer, Catherine H. 2006. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest reduced winter injury to red spruce in a high-injury year. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:2544-2549

Juice, Stephanie M.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Siccama, Thomas G.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Denny, Ellen G.; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L.; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D. 2006. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest. Ecology. 87: 1267-1280.

Haverty, Michael I.; Woodrow, R. Joseph; Nelson, Lori J.; Grace, J. Kenneth. 2005. Identification of Termite Species by the Hydrocarbons in their Feces. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31(9): 2119-2151

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