Release and Evaluation of Scymnus sinuanodulus
Scymnus sinuanodulus Yu & Yao is one of three lady beetles (Coccinellidae) imported from China as potential biological controls for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (HWA). Previous research conducted in the U.S. Forest Service Quarantine Laboratory examined its biology and host specificity. This research indicated it had good potential as a biological control and is not likely to have undesirable, adverse impacts on native flora or fauna. Based on this and other information, permissions were obtained for its release in the environment. From 2005-2011, more than 30,000 S. sinuanodulus were reared by state beneficial insect rearing laboratories and released into forests. Most of these were released as newly emerged adults, but no recoveries were made following the release of these beetles. Subsequent research found that beetles should be overwintered prior to release in the spring. All laboratory colonies of S. sinuanodulus were discontinued in 2001.
Montgomery, M. E.; Keena, M. 2011. Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetles from China. In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 53-76. Chapter 5.
McDonald, R.; Mausel, D.; Salom, S.; Kok, L.; Montgomery, M.; Luker, G.; Steury, S.; Spears, G.; Skeate, S.; Graham, J.; and Hamstead, B. . 2008. Recovery of hemlock woolly adelgid predators in the High Country of Northwestern North Carolina, 2004-2008 In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R., eds. Fourth symposium on hemlock woolly adelgid in the eastern United States. Hartford, CT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Enterprise Team: 53-60.
Yu, G.; Montgomery, M. E. . 2008. An overview of lady beetles in relation to their potential as biological controls for hemlock woolly adelgid, In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R., eds., Fourth symposium on hemlock woolly adelgid in the eastern United States. Hartford, CT. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Enterprise Team: 19-28.
Montgomery, Michael; Cheah, Carole A. S-J.; Asaro, Christopher. 2007. Field cage evaluations of the lady beetle Scymnus sinuanodulus for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid
Asaro, C., C. W. Berisford, M. E. Montgomery, J. Rhea, and J. Hanula. 2005. Biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid in the Southern Appalachians, pp. 248-251. In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R., eds., Third symposium on hemlock woolly adelgid in the eastern United States. Morgantown, WV: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Enterprise Team: 248-251.
Lu, W.; Montgomery; M. E. 2001. Oviposition, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): a predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 94: 64-70.
Lu, W.; Souphanya, P.; Montgomery, M. E. 2002. Description of immature stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with notes on life history. The Coleopterists Bulletin. 56: 127-141.
Montgomery, M. E.; Havill, N. P. 2001. Field evaluation of a Chinese lady beetle for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid, USDA interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species. Annapolis, MD. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 197.
Yu, G.; Yao, D.; Liu, H. 1997. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) collected from Tsuga with Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Scientia Silvae Sinicae. 33: 432-440.
- Michael Montgomery, Research Entomologist, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station
- Melody Keena, Research Entomologist, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station
- Wayne Berisford, University of Geogia, Department of Entomology, Athens, GA
- Richard McDonald, Symbiont Biological Pest Management, Sugar Grove, NC
- Carole Cheah, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Windsor, CT
Last Modified: 05/08/2015