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Northern Research Station
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726
(608) 231-9318
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Asian Longhorned Beetle

Effect of Temperature on Larval Development and Survival

Research Issue

[photo:] ALB larvaThere was a critical need for information on the basic biology of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB).  This information is needed to predict the timing of biological events fundamental to the development and improvement of exclusion and eradication methodologies.  The very limited published data on the life history of this beetle suggests that there may be more than one biotype and does not provide the detailed information that is needed.  The Chinese literature suggests that there are two different portions of the population in Shandong, one that completes one generation a year and another that requires two years to complete a generation.  The only life table information on the beetle is for rearing on Ulmus pumila at one temperature and does not give time in each instar.  In addition, there was a need for a consistently available supply of all life stages of ALB for research on this insect to be conducted in the United States.  ARS and APHIS scientists and their cooperators were also investigating rearing methods, but the supply of insects available to researchers was extremely limited, and much remained to be determined before this species could be continuously propagated in the laboratory.

Our Research

Larval survival (from hatch) and development of ALB from two populations (Ravenswood, Chicago, Illinois, and Bayside, Queens, New York) were evaluated at 7 constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C), and larvae in the third and fifth instars were also reared at 25°C and then moved to 5, 10, and 40°C to estimate developmental time for these instars.  Nonlinear regressions were used to estimate the temperature optimum and thresholds for each life history parameter.

Expected Outcomes

The biological basis for predicting developmental phenology, in order to time exclusion and eradication methodologies and attack rates and development on different tree species.  The responses of ALB to temperature can be used for predicting the potential geographical range of this species and in developing phenological models to predict the timing of critical stages, which are important for management programs.

Research Results

Effects of Temperature on Larval Development and Pupation
The estimated lower threshold temperature for development of instars 1-5 and the pupal stage was near 10 °C, and near 12 °C for the higher instars.  Developmental rate was less temperature sensitive for instars 5-9, when compared to instars 1-4.  Development for all but the first instar was inhibited at constant temperatures > 30°C and all instars failed to develop at 40 °C.  While the two source populations had similar responses to temperature, IL larvae were heavier than those from NY.  Temperature and its influence on larval weight had profound impacts on whether or not a larva proceeded to pupation.  Based on the temperature effects detailed here, larval development and pupation should be possible in most of the continental United States where suitable hosts are available.  These data can be used to develop a DD model to estimate beetle phenology, however, at least 2 °C should be added to air temperatures to adjust for the mediation of temperature by the wood.  These data provide a basis for predicting the potential geographical range of this species and for developing phenological models to predict the timing of immature stages, both of which are important for management programs.

Keena, M.A.; Moore, P.M. 2010. Effects of temperature on Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae and pupae. Environmental Entomology. 39(4): 1323-1335..

Research Participants

Principal Investigator

  • Melody Keena, US Forest Service- Northern Research Station Research Entomologist

Research Partners

  • Paul Moore, US Forest Service- Northern Research Station Biological Sciences Technician

Last Modified: 07/13/2017