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Baltimore Field Station

Environmental Governance & Civic Engagement

To promote urban sustainability and resilience, the role of co-design, co-production, and dissemination of social-ecological knowledge is of growing interest and importance for cities and their metropolitan regions.  Although the antecedents for this approach are decades old, the integration of science and practice to advance sustainability and resilience is different from earlier approaches in several ways. The potential number of science disciplines required is much larger. The diversity and number of potential actors from government, business, and civil society sectors is greater. The technological infrastructures to facilitate co-design, co-production, and dissemination of social-ecological knowledge have radically changed, with the advent of and increasing access to diverse digital data, the internet, and its associated technologies.  The social relationships connecting distant sectors and actors in the current era of globalization are ever more complex and dynamic.  Finally, the need to address sustainability and resilience involves numerous scales—from household to global—and may be one of the defining issues for this century.

[image:] Flowchart represents dynamic feedbacks between decision-making and science
Cities are ideal places for facilitating the flow of information from basic science to decision-making and problem solving. The Baltimore Field Station plays a critical role in both promoting this flow of information and in conducting research on the ways in which co-design, co-production, and dissemination of social-ecological research can be used in an "Ecology for the City", promoting urban sustainability and resilience.

Baltimore Field Station and Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) research has been incorporated into local municipal data management systems, and is shared via multiple public databases, including the BES website, an online library of BES publications, and the Baltimore Neighborhood Indicators Alliance. Baltimore Field Station staff also conduct analyses of administrative data for many local partners and participate in local environmental governance and civic engagement networks including TreeBaltimore, the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Annual Meeting and Community Celebration, the Baltimore Urban Waters Federal Partnership, and regular meetings with the Baltimore City Office of Sustainability and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources’ Forest Service.

The Baltimore Field Station examines environmental governance and civic engagement through the following projects:

bulleted item Urban Tree Canopy Assessment
bulleted item Green Pattern Book & Green Registry
bulleted item STEW-MAP
bulleted item Revitalization of Watershed 263
bulleted item Urban Waters
The Baltimore Forest History Project - Historical Aerial Imagery, Community Engagement and Citizen Science

Data & Publications

Publications are listed in reverse chronological order.

All data associated with this research is archived on the BES website.


Svendsen, Erika S.; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Fisher, Dana R.; Connolly, James J.T.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Sonti, Nancy F.; Locke, Dexter H.; Westphal, Lynne M.; LeBlanc Fisher, Cherie; Grove, J. Morgan; Romolini, Michele; Blahna, Dale J.; Wolf, Kathleen L. 2016. Stewardship mapping and assessment project: a framework for understanding community-based environmental stewardship. Gen. Tech. Rep. 156. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 134 p.

Grove, J. M.; Cadenasso, M. L.; Pickett, S. T. A.; Burch, W. R. J.; Machlis, G. E. 2015. The Baltimore School of Urban Ecology: Space, Scale, and Time for the Study of Cities. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Romolini, M.; Dalton, S.E.; Grove, J.M. 2015. Environmental governance of the sustainable city: examining changes in stewardship networks in the Gwynns Falls watershed.

Battaglia, Michael; Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Galvin, Michael; Grove, Morgan. 2014. It's not easy going green: Obstacles to tree-planting programs in East Baltimore. Cities and the Environment (CATE). 7(2):6.

Childers, Daniel L.; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Grove, J. Morgan; Ogden, Laura; Whitmer, Alison. 2014. Advancing urban sustainability theory and action: Challenges and opportunities. Landscape and Urban Planning. 125: 320-328.

Grove, J.M. 2014. Expanding the Vision of the Experimental Forest Network to Urban Areas. Research for the Long-Term: The interplay of societal need and research on USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges. Springer-Verlag.

Grove, J. Morgan; Locke, Dexter H.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M. 2014. An ecology of prestige in New York City: Examining the relationships among population density, socio-economic status, group identity, and residential canopy cover. Environmental Management. 54(3): 402-419.

Polsky, Colin; Grove, J. Morgan; Knudson, Chris; Groffman, Peter M.; Bettez, Neil; Cavender-Bares, JJeannine; Hall, Sharon J.; Heffernan, James B.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Larson, Kelli L.; Morse, Jennifer L.; Neill, Christopher; Nelson, Kristen C.; Ogden, Laura A.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Pataki, Diane E.; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Steele, Meredith K. 2014. Assessing the homogenization of urban land management with an application to US residential lawn care. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(12): 4432-4437.

Locke, Dexter H.; Grove, J. Morgan. 2014. Doing the hard work where it's easiest? Examining the relationships between urban greening programs and social and ecological characteristics. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. doi: 10.1007/s12061-014-9131-1.

Hager, Guy W; Belt, Kenneth T.; Stack, William; Burgess, Kimberly; Grove, J. Morgan; Caplan, Bess; Hardcastle, Mary; Shelley, Desiree; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Groffman, Peter M. 2013. Socioecological revitalization of an urban watershed. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 11(1): 28-36.

Fraser, J. C.; Bazuin, J. T.; Band, L. E.; Grove, J. M. 2013. Covenants, cohesion, and community: The effects of neighborhood governance on lawn fertilization. Landscape and Urban Planning 115: 30-38.

Locke, D. H.; Grove, J.M.; Galvin, M.; O’Neil-Dunne, J.P.M.; Murphy, C. 2013. Applications of Urban Tree Canopy Assessment and Prioritization Tools: Supporting Collaborative Decision Making to Achieve Urban Sustainability Goals Applications of Urban Tree Canopy Assessment and Prioritization Tools. Cities and the Environment 6: Article 7.

Romolini, M.; Grove, J. M.; Locke, D. H. 2013. Assessing and comparing relationships between urban environmental stewardship networks and land cover in Baltimore and Seattle. Landscape and Urban Planning 120: 190-207.

Wolf, K.L., Blahna, D., Brinkley, W. Romolini, M. 2013. Environmental Stewardship Footprint Research: Linking Human Agency and Ecosystem Health in the Puget Sound Region. Urban Ecosystems 16: 13-32.

Boone, C.G.; Gragson, T.L.; Grove, J.M. 2013. Long-term trends in human population growth and economy across sites. In: Peters, D.P.C.; Laney C.M.; Lugo A.E.; Collins S.L.; Driscoll C.T.; Groffman P.M.; Grove J.M.; Knapp A.K.; Kratz T.K.; Ohman M.D.; Waide R.B.; Yao J., eds. Long-term trends in ecological systems: a basis for understanding responses to global change. USDA Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin 1931. Chapter 8, p 54-57.

Romolini, M.; Brinkley, W.; Wolf, K. 2012. What is Urban Environmental Stewardship? Constructing a Practitioner Derived Framework. USDA Forest Service Research Note (PNW-RN-566). 

Chowdhury, R. R.; Larson, K.; Grove, M.; Polsky, C.; Cook, E. 2011. A Multi-Scalar Approach to Theorizing Socio- Ecological Dynamics of Urban Residential Landscapes, Cities and the Environment 4(1): Article 6.

Vemuri, A. W.; Morgan Grove, J.; Wilson, M. A.; Burch, W. R. 2011. A Tale of Two Scales: Evaluating the Relationship among Life Satisfaction, Social Capital, Income, and the Natural Environment at Individual and Neighborhood Levels in Metropolitan Baltimore. Environment and Behavior, 43(1), 3-25. 

Locke, Dexter; Grove, J. Morgan; Lu, Jacqueline W.T.; Troy, Austin; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M.; Beck, Brian. 2010. Prioritizing preferable locations for increasing urban tree canopy in New York City. Cities and the Environment 3(1):18.

Chapin, F. Stuart; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Kofinas, Gary P.; Folke, Carl; Abel, Nick; Clark, William C.; Olsson, Per; Smith, D. Mark Stafford; Walker, Brian; Young, Oran R.; Berkes, Fikret; Biggs, Reinette; Grove, J. Morgan; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Pinkerton, Evelyn; Steffen, Will; Swanson, Frederick J. 2010. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 25(4): 241-249.

Grove, J.M. 2009. Cities: Managing densely settled social-ecological systems. In: Chapin, F.S.I.; Kofinas, G.; Folke, C., eds. Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. New York: Springer-Verlag. 

Zhou, W.; Grove, J.M.; Troy, A.; Jenkins, J.C. 2009. Can Money Buy Green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawncare expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas. Society & Natural Resources. 22:744-760.

Pickett, S.T.A.; Cadenasso, M.L.; Grove, J.M.; Groffman, P.; Band, L.E.; Boone, C.; Burch, W.R.; Grimmond, S.; Hom, J.; Jenkins, J.C.; Law, N.L.; Nilon, C.H.; Pouyat, R.V.; Szlavecz, K.; Warren, P.S.; Wilson, M.A. 2008. Beyond Urban Legends: an emerging framework of urban ecology as illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Bioscience. 58(2):139-150.

Troy, A.R.; Grove, J.M. 2008. Property values, parks, and crime: a hedonic analysis in Baltimore, MD. Landscape and Urban Planning. 87:233-245.

Zhou, W.; Troy, A.R.; Grove, J.M. 2008. Modeling Residential Lawn Fertilization Practices: Integrating high resolution remote sensing with socioeconomic data. Environmental Management. 41:742-752.


Zhou, W.; Troy, A.R.; Grove, J.M. 2008. Object-based Land Cover Classification and Change Analysis in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area Using Multi-temporal High Resolution Remote Sensing Data. Sensors. 8:1613-1636.

Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M.; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Cadenasso, Mary L. 2007. Predicting opportunities for greening and patterns of vegetation on private urban lands. Environmental Management. 40(3): 394-412.

Baker, L.; Brazel, A; Byrne, L.; Felson, A.; Grove, J.M.; Hill, H.; Nelson, K.C.; Walker, J.; Shandas, V. (2007). Effects of human choices on characteristics of urban ecosystems. Bull Ecol Soc Am. October: 404-409.

Galvin, M.F.; Grove, J.M.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.P.M. 2006. A Report on City of Baltimore's Present and Potential Urban Tree Canopy, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Service: 17.

Grove, J.M.; Cadenasso, M.L.; Burch, W.R. Jr.; Pickett, S.T.A.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.P.M.; Schwarz, K.; Wilson, M.; Troy, A.R.; Boone, C. 2006. Data and Methods Comparing Social Structure and Vegetation Structure of Urban Neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. Society & Natural Resources. 19(2):117-136.

Grove, J.M.; Troy, A.R.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.P.M.; Burch, W.R.; Cadenasso, M.L.; Pickett, S.T.A. 2006. Characterization of Households and Its Implications for the Vegetation of Urban Ecosystems. Ecosystems. 9:578-597.

Raciti, S.; Galvin, M.F.; Grove, J.M.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.P.M.; Todd, A.; Clagett, S. 2006. Urban Tree Canopy Goal Setting: A Guide for Chesapeake Bay Communities, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern State & Private Forestry, Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Annapolis, MD.

Grove, J.M.; Burch, W.R.; Pickett, S.T.A. 2005. Social Mosaics and Urban Forestry in Baltimore, Maryland. In: Lee, R.G.; Field, D.R., eds., Communities and Forests: Where People Meet the Land. Corvalis: Oregon State University Press: 248-273.

Band, L.E.; Cadenasso, M.L.; Grimmond, S.; Grove, J.M. 2005. Heterogeneity in Urban Ecosystems: Pattern and Process. In: Lovett, G.; Jones, C.G.; Turner, M.G.; Weathers, K.G., eds. Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes. New York: Springer-Verlag: 257-278.

Boone, C. G. 2002. An Assessment and Explanation of Environmental Inequity in Baltimore. Urban Geography 23, 6: 581-595.


Last Modified: December 3, 2019