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Life History and Disturbance Response of Carya illinoensis (Pecan)
Family: Juglandaceae
Guild: persistent, large seeded, advance growth dependent
Functional Lifeform: large deciduous tree
Ecological Role: The pecan is a subclimax tree, grows in rich moist soils, often bottomlands that are not subject to prolonged flooding. It grows in a humid climate. It is a major component of the Sycamore-Sweetgum-Elm forest. Its nuts provide food for both humans and wildlife
Lifespan, yrs (typical/max): 200/300
Shade Tolerance: intolerant
Height, m: up to 55m
Canopy Tree: yes
Pollination Agent: wind
Seeding, yrs (begins/optimal/declines): 2-20/75/225
Mast Frequency, yrs: 1-3yrs
New Cohorts Source: seeds or sprouts
Flowering Dates: late spring
Flowers/Cones Damaged by Frost: yes
Seedfall Begins: early fall
Seed Banking: up to 1 yr (will last up to 5 yrs in closed containers maintained at optimum conditions)
Cold Stratification Required: yes
Seed Type/Dispersal Distance/Agent: nut/to 50m/gravity, animals, and flood waters
Season of Germination: late spring
Seedling Rooting System: tap root
Sprouting: stump sprouts, layerings
Establishment Seedbed Preferences:
Substrate: well drained loamy soils or variable
Light: overstory shade
Moisture: moist but well drained
Temperature: neutral
Disturbance Response:
Fire: Pecan is susceptible to fire damage at all ages. Fire that moves along the surface of its habitat will killing most tree reproduction and can occasionally scorch the sensitive bark of older trees. Particularly hot fire will kill mature trees.
Air Pollution: