About LANDIS Landscape Disturbance and Succession model
LANDIS is designed to model forest succession, disturbance (including fire, wind, harvesting, insects, global change), and seed dispersal across large (>1 million ha) landscapes. LANDIS represents landscapes as a grid of cells and tracks age cohorts of each species (presence/absence or biomass) rather than individual trees. LANDIS simulates distinct ecological processes, allowing complex interactions to play out as emergent properties of the simulation.
LANDIS development began in the early 1990s under the direction of Dr. David Mladenoff, with partial funding from the Northern Research Station, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Dr. Hong He joined the team in the late 1990s followed by Dr. Robert Scheller several years later. There are two currently supported versions of LANDIS which were developed with primary funding from the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service.
LANDIS 4.0 is a fully modular software product with improved fire simulation and new capabilities for simulating fuel accumulation and decomposition and disturbance by biological agents such as insects and disease. Dr. He led the development of this version at the University of Missouri in collaboration with the Northern Research Station in Rhinelander, Wisconsin.
LANDIS-II is a completely re-engineered version developed at the Forest Landscape Ecology Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, in collaboration with the Northern Research Station in Rhinelander, Wisconsin. LANDIS-II was designed to advance forest landscape simulation modeling in many respects. Most significantly, LANDIS-II
- allows for the incorporation of ecosystem processes and states (e.g., live biomass accumulation) at broad spatial scales
- has flexible time steps for every process,
- and uses an advanced architecture that will significantly increase collaborative potential.
Some LANDIS-II Features:
- Variable time steps (1 - 40 years) for each extension (disturbance, succession, and output), to be determined by the user. Users can mix-and-match time steps. For example: succession could be decadal and fire annual or both succession and fire could run at an annual time step.
- Calculation of aboveground live and dead biomass will be encapsulated within an optional extension. An extension that is logically consistent with the original LANDIS cohort structure (species-age) will remain available.
- A re-organized and simplified user interface. This includes new formats for inputting initial landscape data, new file formats for managing scenarios, and new file formats for user input data. Input data will be extensively and automatically checked for errors. A graphical user interface will be provided in 2007.
- An on-line database of extensions will be available for download. Browse for new or updated extensions, share your extensions, etc.
- Programmed natively as separate modules, allowing rapid development of new or alternative extensions (modules) for disturbance, reproduction/seed dispersal, succession, and output.
- Extensions are dynamically loadable (aka Plug-and-Play). Compilation is not necessary to use new or different extensions. Nor is compilation necessary to add new variables to the landscape, new species variables, or new ecoregion variables.
- Developed using a standardized development method (Unified Process) and rigorous unit testing.
- LANDIS-II is open source.
Documentation and Downloads
LANDIS 4.0 Software is available from the School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri at http://landis.missouri.edu/
LANDIS II Software is available from the Forest Ecology Laboratory, University of Wisconsin at http://www.landis-ii.org/
LANDIS Related Publications
|Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project||Brandt, Leslie; He, Hong; Iverson, Louis; Thompson, Frank R.; Butler, Patricia; Handler, Stephen; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Albrecht, Matthew; Blume-Weaver, Richard; Deizman, Paul; DePuy, John; Dijak, William D.; Dinkel, Gary; Fei, Songlin; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Leahy, Michael; Matthews, Stephen; Nelson, Paul; Oberle, Brad; Perez, Judi; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E.; Shuey, John; Smith, Adam B.; Studyvin, Charles; Tirpak, John M.; Walk, Jeffery W.; Wang, Wen J.; Watts, Laura; Weigel, Dale; Westin, Steve.||2014|
|LANDIS PRO: a landscape model that predicts forest composition and structure changes at regional scales||Wang, Wen J.; He, Hong S.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Spetich, Martin A.||2014|
|Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project||Handler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Eagle, Amy Clark; Cohen, Joshua G.; Corner, Rich; Reich, Peter B.; Baker, Tim; Chhin, Sophan; Clark, Eric; Fehringer, David; Fosgitt, Jon; Gries, James; Hall, Christine; Hall, Kimberly R.; Heyd, Robert; Hoving, Christopher L.; Iba?ez, Ines; Kuhr, Don; Matthews, Stephen; Muladore, Jennifer; Nadelhoffer, Knute; Neumann, David; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Sands, Matt; Swaty, Randy; Wonch, Leiloni; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.||2014|
|Modeling forest mortality caused by drought stress: implications for climate change||Gustafson, Eric J; Sturtevant, Brian R.||2013|
|Landscape Builder: software for the creation of initial landscapes for LANDIS from FIA data||Dijak, William.||2013|
|Scaling Aspen-FACE experimental results to century and landscape scales||Gustafson, Eric J.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.||2013|
|Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?||Sturtevant, Brian R; Miranda, Brian R; Shinneman, Douglas J; Gustafson, Eric J; Wolter, Peter T.||2012|
|Simulating the interactions of forest structure, fire regime, and plant invasion in the southern Appalachians using LANDIS||Xi, Weimin; Chen, Szu-Hung; Birt, Andrew G.; Waldron, John D.; Lafon, Charles W.; Cairns, David M.; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Coulson, Robert N.||2011|
|Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern Wisconsin||Swanston, Chris; Janowiak, Maria; Iverson, Louis; Parker, Linda; Mladenoff, David; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; St. Pierre, Matt; Prasad, Anantha; Matthews, Stephen; Peters, Matthew; Higgins, Dale; Dorland, Avery.||2011|
|Chapter 13 Application of landscape and habitat suitability models to conservation: the Hoosier National Forest land-management plan||Rittenhouse, Chadwick D.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Dijak, William D.; Fan, Zhaofei; Thompson, Frank R., III; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Perez, Judith A.; Sandeno, Cynthia M.||2011|
|Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia||Gustafson, Eric J.; Shvidenko, Anatoly Z.; Scheller, Robert M.||2011|
|Evaluating the effects of alternative forest management plans under various physiographic settings using historical records as a reference||Zhang, Yangjian; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Yang, Jian; Palik, Brian J.||2011|
|Carbon sequestration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under different scenarios of fire management||Scheller, Robert M.; Van Tuyl, Steve; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; La Puma, Inga.||2011|
|An innovative computer design for modeling forest landscape change in very large spatial extents with fine resolutions||Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Zhang, Yangjian.||2011|
|Predicting global change effects on forest biomass and composition in south-central Siberia||Gustafson, Eric; Shvidenko, Anatoly D.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Scheller, Robert M.||2010|
|Forest insect defoliation and carbon dynamics: simulating multiple defoliator outbreaks in mixed deciduous landscapes with LANDIS-II||Foster, Jane; Scheller, Robert; Sturtevant, Brian; Townsend, Phillip; Mladenoff, David||2010|
|Using LANDIS II to study the effects of global change in Siberia||Gustafson, Eric J.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Shvidenko, Anatoly Z.; Scheller, Robert M.||2010|
|Using landscape disturbance and succession models to support forest management||Gustafson, Eric J.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Shvidenko, Anatoly S.; Scheller, Robert M.||2010|
|Red spruce restoration modeling in LANDIS||Thomas-Van Gundy, Melissa.||2010|
|Simulating restoration strategies for a southern boreal forest landscape with complex land ownership patterns||Shinneman, Douglas J.; Cornett, Meredith W.; Palik, Brian J.||2010|
|Simulating impacts of invasive plants in southern Appalachian landscapes using LANDIS||Xi, Weimin; Lafon, Charles W.; Cairns, David M.; Waldron, John D.; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Coulston, Robert N.||2009|
|Modeling fire and other disturbance processes using LANDIS||Shifley, Stephen R.; Yang, Jian; He, Hong||2009|
|Forest forming process and dynamic vegetation models under global change||Shvidenko, A.; Gustafson, E.||2009|
|Simulating dynamic and mixed-severity fire regimes: a process-based fire extension for LANDIS-II||Sturtevant, Brian R.; Scheller, Robert M.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas.; Syphard, Alexandra.||2009|
|Studying fire mitigation strategies in multi-ownership landscapes: balancing the management of fire-dependent ecosystems and fire risk||Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Scheller, Robert M.||2009|
|Border Lakes land-cover classification||Bauer, Marvin; Loeffelholz, Brian; Shinneman, Doug.||2009|
|Increasing the reliability of ecological models using modern software engineering techniques||Scheller, Robert M.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Ward, Brendan C.; Mladenoff, David J.||2009|
|Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA||Zollner, Patrick A.; Roberts, L. Jay; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.; Radeloff, Volker||2008|
|Comparing effects of fire modeling methods on simulated fire patterns and succession: a case study in the Missouri Ozarks||Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.||2008|
|Simulated effects of climate change, fragmentation, and inter-specific competition on tree species migration in northern Wisconsin, USA||Scheller, Robert M.; Mladenoff, David J.||2008|
|Forecasting landscape-scale, cumulative effects of forest management on vegetation and wildlife habitat: a case study of issues, limitations, and opportunities||Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Fan, Zhaofei F.||2008|
|Spatial controls of occurrence and spread of wildfires in the Missouri Ozark Highlands||Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.||2008|
|Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolution||Scheller, Robert M.; Domingo, James B.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Williams, Jeremy S.; Rudy, Arnold; Gustafson, Eric J.; Mladenoff, David J.||2007|
|Simulated effects of forest management alternatives on landscape structure and habitat suitability in the Midwestern United States||Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Dijak, William D.; Larson, Michael A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.||2006|
|Modeling forest harvesting effects on landscape pattern in the Northwest Wisconsin Pine Barrens||Radeloff, Volker C.; Mladenoff, David J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Scheller, Robert M.; Zollner, Patrick A.; Heilman, Hong S.; Akcakaya, H. Resit||2006|
|Modeling the Influence of Dynamic Zoning of Forest Harvesting on Ecological Succession in a Northern Hardwoods Landscape||Zollner, Patrick A.; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Mladenoff, David J.||2005|
|LANDIS 4.0 users guide. LANDIS: a spatially explicit model of forest landscape disturbance, management, and succession||He, Hong S.; Li, Wei; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Yang, Jian; Shang, Bo Z.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Mladenoff, David J.||2005|
|Latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical modeling of spatial uncertainty in a spatially explicit forest landscape model simulation||Xu, Chonggang; He, Hong S.; Hu, Yuanman; Chang, Yu; Li, Xiuzhen; Bu, Rencang||2005|
|A hierarchical fire frequency model to simulate temporal patterns of fire regimes in LANDIS||Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Gustafson, Eric J.||2004|
|Human influence on the abundance and connectivity of high-risk fuels in mixed forests of northern Wisconsin, USA||Sturtevant, Brian R.; Zollner, Patrick A.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Cleland, David T.||2004|
|Modeling biological disturbances in LANDIS: a module description and demonstration using spruce budworm||Sturtevant, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Li, Wei; He, Hong S.||2004|
|Modeling disturbance and succession in forest landscapes using LANDIS: introduction||Sturtevant, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.||2004|
|Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA||Gustafson, Eric J.; Zollner, Patrick A.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Hong, S. He; Mladenoff, David J.||2004|
|Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning||Larson, Michael A.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Dijak, William D.; Shifley, Stephen R.||2004|
|Simulating forest fuel and fire risk dynamics across landscapes--LANDIS fuel module design||He, Hong S.; Shang, Bo Z.; Crow, Thomas R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Shifley, Stephen R.||2004|
|Study of landscape change under forest harvesting and climate warming-induced fire disturbance||Hong, S. He; Mladenoff, David J.; Gustafson, Eric J.||2002|
|Spatial simulation of forest succession and timber harvesting using LANDIS||Gustafson, Eric J.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Mladenoff, David J.; Nimerfro, Kevin K.; He, Hong S.||2000|
|Model forest landscape change in the Missouri Ozarks under alternative management practices||Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Larsen , David R.; Dijak, William D.||2000|
|Utilizing inventory information to calibrate a landscape simulation model||Shifley, Steven R.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Larsen, David R.; Mladenoff, David J.; Gustafson, Eric J.||2000|
|Linking an ecosystem model and a landscape model to study forest species response to climate warming||He, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.; Crow, Thomas R.||1999|
|An object-oriented forest landscape model and its representation of tree species||He, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.; Boeder, Joel||1999|
|Spatially explicit and stochastic simulation of forest landscape fire disturbance and succession||He, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.||1999|
|The effects of seed dispersal on the simulation of long-term forest landscape change||He, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.||1999|
|Modeling forest landscape change in the Ozarks: guiding principles and preliminary implementation||Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Larsen, David R.; Mladenoff, David J.||1997|
|Oak decline in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas, USA: Spatial and temporal patterns under two fire regimes.||Spetich, M.A.; and He, H.S.||2008|
- Brian R. Sturtevant, USDA-Forest Service- Research Ecologist
- Eric J. Gustafson, USDA-Forest Service- Research Ecologist
- Stephen R. Shifley, USDA-Forest Service- Research Forester
- Robert M. Scheller, Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, Portland State University
- David Mladenoff, Forest Landscape Ecology Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison
- Hong S. He, School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri
Last Modified: 05/23/2013