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New Station Publications

Welcome to the electronic version of the Northern Research Station's New Publications List 1 - 2015

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-128.  User's guide to SILVAH.  Knopp, Peter D.; Stout, Susan L.  122 p.  

This user's guide for the SILVAH computer program, version 6.2, supersedes the 1992 user's guide (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-162). Designed for stand-alone Windows-based personal computers, SILVAH recommends a silvicultural prescription for a forest stand based on a summary and analysis of field inventory data. The program also includes a simulator that can be used to project stand growth and development, estimating yields from either prescribed or user-defined treatments. The software is distributed with an online help system and this printed user's manual. The computer program described in this publication is available on the Internet at http://nrs.fs.fed.us/tools/silvah.

 

  2.  GTR-NRS-129.  Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project.  Handler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Eagle, Amy Clark; Cohen, Joshua G.; Corner, Rich; Reich, Peter B.; Baker, Tim; Chhin, Sophan; Clark, Eric; Fehringer, David; Fosgitt, Jon; Gries, James; Hall, Christine; Hall, Kimberly R.; Heyd, Robert; Hoving, Christopher L.; Iba?ez, Ines; Kuhr, Don; Matthews, Stephen; Muladore, Jennifer; Nadelhoffer, Knute; Neumann, David; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Sands, Matt; Swaty, Randy; Wonch, Leiloni; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.  229 p.  

Forests in northern Michigan will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate during the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Michigan's eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and impacts to forest ecosystems was considered in order to draw conclusions on climate change vulnerability. Upland spruce-fir forests were determined to be the most vulnerable, whereas oak associations and barrens were determined to be less vulnerable to projected changes in climate. Projected changes in climate and the associated ecosystem impacts and vulnerabilities will have important implications for economically valuable timber species, forest-dependent wildlife and plants, recreation, and long-range planning.

 

  3.  GTR-NRS-130.  Sawing methods for improving lumber yield recovery of out-of-shape hardwood saw logs.  Bennett, Neal.  8 p.  

Not every saw log is straight and cylindrical in shape. In fact, logs are commonly out-of-round, tapered, or crooked, and often a combination of these shapes. Sawmill operators employ every means to recover as much yield as possible from each log. Yield recovery can be the difference between a profitable and a nonprofitable log. There are opportunities for improving yield in out-of-shape hardwood saw logs while still maintaining lumber quality.

 

  4.  GTR-NRS-131.  Special Forest Products on the Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests: a research-based approach to management.  Emery, Marla R.; Ginger, Clare.  51 p.  

Special forest products (SFPs) are gathered from more than 200 vascular and fungal species on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) and Finger Lakes National Forest (FLNF). This report documents those SFPs and proposes an approach to managing them in the context of legislation directing the U.S. Forest Service to institute a program of active SFP management. Based on the literature and primary research conducted on and around the GMNF and FLNF, we offer a system for classifying SFPs according to the likely sustainability of harvesting practices and present a suite of possible management strategies for each category. The report also includes suggestions for development of sustainable harvest guidelines, design of permit programs and fees, and opportunities for collaborative management. These suggestions incorporate insights from 40 individuals interviewed for the research. We dedicate a section to discussing results in terms of five key provisions of the U.S. Forest Service rule pending at the time of press. Objectives of the approach recommended here include effectively allocating scarce management resources, fostering voluntary compliance, and broadening the benefits and beneficiaries of forest management.

 

  5.  GTR-NRS-132.  Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast.  Leak, William B.; Yamasaki, Mariko; Holleran, Robbo.  46 p.  

This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and charts useful to practicing field foresters. Northern hardwood forest types can be managed as even- or unevenaged stands using a variety of silvicultural practices. In planning these practices, there are many factors to consider including access, species composition, desired regeneration, wildlife habitat needs and environmental concerns. The aim of this document is to provide guidelines to assist the manager in choosing the right methods to meet the landowner objectives consistent with stand conditions.

 

  6.  GTR-NRS-133.  Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project.  Handler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Barrett, Kelly; Kolka, Randy; McQuiston, Casey; Palik, Brian; Reich, Peter B.; Turner, Clarence; White, Mark; Adams, Cheryl; D'Amato, Anthony; Hagell, Suzanne; Johnson, Patricia; Johnson, Rosemary; Larson, Mike; Matthews, Stephen; Montgomery, Rebecca; Olson, Steve; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Rajala, Jack; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Fehringer, David; Hoving, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.  228 p.  

Forests in northern Minnesota will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Minnesota's Laurentian Mixed Forest Province to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and impacts to forest ecosystems was considered in order to draw conclusions on climate change vulnerability. Wet Forests, Forested Rich Peatlands, and Acid Peatlands were determined to be the most vulnerable to projected changes in climate, whereas Floodplain Forests, Fire-Dependent Forests, and Mesic Hardwood Forests were determined to be less vulnerable. Projected changes in climate and the associated ecosystem impacts and vulnerabilities will have important implications for economically valuable timber species, forest-dependent wildlife and plants, recreation, and long-range planning.

 

  7.  GTR-NRS-135.  The fire—oak literature of eastern North America: synthesis and guidelines.  Brose, Patrick H.; Dey, Daniel C.; Waldrop, Thomas A.  98 p.  

Guidelines for using prescribed fire to regenerate and restore upland oak forests, woodlands, and savannas in eastern North America were developed by synthesizing the results of more than 100 scientific publications. The first four chapters provide background information on the values of oak ecosystems, eastern fire history, oak's adaptations to fire, and the findings of fire-oak research conducted over the past 50 years. The final chapter synthesizes that background information into guidelines that explain how to use prescribed fire to facilitate oak seedling establishment, release oak reproduction from competing mesophytic hardwoods, and rehabilitate open oak woodlands, oak savannas, and scrub oak communities. A reference section is also provided for readers desiring to delve more deeply into the associations between periodic fire and oak forests, woodlands, and savannas.

 

  8.  RB-NRS-91.  Assessing urban forest effects and values: Douglas County, Kansas.  Nowak, David J.; Bodine, Allison R.; Hoehn, Robert E.; Ellis, Alexis; Bomberger, Kim; Crane, Daniel E.; Endreny, Theodore A.; Taggert, Thomas; Stephan, Emily.  76 p.  

An analysis of trees in Douglas County, Kansas, reveals that this area has about 14,164,000 trees with tree and shrub canopy that covers 25.2 percent of the county. The most common tree species are American elm, northern hackberry, eastern redcedar, Osage-orange, and honeylocust. Trees in Douglas County currently store about 1.7 million tons of carbon (6.4 million tons CO2) valued at $124 million. In addition, these trees remove about 82,000 tons of carbon per year (300,000 tons CO2 per year valued at $5.8 million per year) and about 3,870 tons of air pollution per year ($17.7 million per year). Douglas County's trees are estimated to reduce annual residential energy costs by $2.9 million per year. The compensatory value of the trees is estimated at $6.2 billion. Loss of the current tree cover in the Wakarusa River watershed in Douglas County would increase annual flow by an average of 2.6 percent (88.9 million ft3). Information on the structure and functions of the regional forest can be used to inform forest management programs and to integrate regional forests within plans to improve environmental quality in Douglas County.

 

  9.  RMAP-NRS-5.  Modeled distributions of 12 tree species in New York.  Riemann, Rachel I.; Wilson, Barry T.; Lister, Andrew J.; Cook, Oren; Crane-Murdoch, Sierra.  2 p.  

These maps depict the distribution of 12 tree species across the state of New York. The maps show where these trees do not occur (gray), occasionally occur (pale green), are a minor component (medium green), are a major component (dark green), or are the dominant species (black) in the forest, as determined by that species' total basal area. Basal area is the area of a cross-section of the trunk at 4.5 feet above ground (breast height). Basal area is a way of measuring how dominant a particular species is in a stand because of the way large trees contribute more to the total basal area than small trees. The map at the top of the circle (red maple) is the species with the greatest basal area in the state. All other maps are generally arranged to group species that commonly occur together. Of the 105 tree species recorded in New York in the 2005-2009 inventories, the species presented here are the top 12 in the state by total basal area, and together represent 74 percent of the total live tree basal area and 75 percent of the number of trees in New York. The center map shows where forest, nonforest, and water are present. In all maps, white is nonforest and water is blue.

 

  10.  RMAP-NRS-6.  Map of distribution of six forest ownership types in the conterminous United States.  Hewes, Jaketon H.; Butler, Brett J.; Liknes, Greg C.; Nelson, Mark D.; Snyder, Stephanie A.  2 p.  

This map depicts the spatial distribution of ownership types across forest land in the conterminous United States circa 2009. The distribution is derived, in part, from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data that are collected at a sample intensity of approximately one plot per 2400 ha across the United States (U.S. Forest Service 2012). Ownership categories were mapped to the landscape using Thiessen polygons, and a forest/nonforest mask was applied to limit ownership portrayal to forested areas (Butler et al. 2014). Inset maps depict states by the percentage of forest land held by owner type indicated. States that appear darker do not necessarily have more forested land of a particular type than other states, but rather have a greater percentage of their forested land in a given ownership type.

 

  11.  RP-NRS-26.  Effects of clearcutting, patch cutting, and low-density shelterwoods on breeding birds and tree regeneration in New Hampshire northern hardwoods.  Yamasaki, Mariko; Costello, Christine A.; Leak, William B.  15 p.  

Clearcutting is an effective regeneration practice for northern hardwoods in New England. However, in esthetically sensitive areas forest managers sometimes use methods that soften the visual impact, such as smaller clearcuts (patch cuts) or low-density shelterwoods. It is unclear if these methods produce the same effects as clearcuts on tree regeneration and breeding bird habitat. A comparison of a 15-acre clearcut, four patch cuts varying in size from 2.9 to 5.5 acres, and a 34-acre low-density shelterwood showed that the patches regenerated some early successional tree species, similar to the clearcut, however, the smaller 3-acre patches also produced a higher component of beech and less pin cherry. The shelterwood produced high proportions of beech and striped maple. Early successional, generalists, and mid-/later successional birds were present in all three treatment areas although the clearcut and patches had higher proportions and more observations of early successional bird species.

 

Copies still available

  12.  GTR-NC-264.  A revised managers handbook for red pine in the North Central Region.  Gilmore, Daniel W.; Palik, Brian J.  55 p.  

This new version of the Red Pine Managers Guide gathers up-to-date information from many disciplines to address a wide range of red pine management issues. It provides guidance on managing red pine on extended rotations with a focus on landscape-scale objectives along with the traditional forest management tools focusing on production silviculture. The insect and disease portion of this guide has been expanded to include the latest information on forest protection.

 

Available Online Only

13.  GTR-NRS-134.  Available Online Only.
Hazardous fuels management in mixed red pine and eastern white pine forest in the northern Lake States: A synthesis of knowledge.  Toman, Eric; Hix, David M.; Goebel, P. Charles; Gehrt, Stanley D.; Wilson, Robyn S.; Sherry, Jennifer A.; Silvis, Alexander; Nyamai, Priscilla; Williams, Roger A.; McCaffrey, Sarah.  64 p.

Fuels reduction decisions are made within a larger context of resource management characterized by multiple objectives including ecosystem restoration, wildlife management, commodity production (from timber to nontraditional forest products), and provision of recreation opportunities and amenity values. Implementation of fuels treatments is strongly influenced by their perceived influence on and compatibility with overarching management objectives. In some cases these objectives may be complementary while in others they may involve difficult tradeoffs. Such tradeoffs are only further complicated by institutional mandates, limited availability of information, and complex ownership patterns. Like natural resource managers across the United States, those in the northern Lake States must balance these competing demands as they seek to build their management programs. However, there is limited information available to support these management decisions in the mixed red (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and eastern white pine (P. strobus L.) forests of the northern Lake States. This report informs fuels management decisions in the northern Lake States by synthesizing existing knowledge from the fields of silviculture, forest ecology, wildlife ecology, forest economics, public acceptance, and decision science. We provide an overview of forests and fire regimes in the northern Lake States followed by a description of different fuels treatment techniques and their expected outcomes. We then include a discussion of comprehensive management principles to consider in developing fire and fuels management programs for the region.

 

14.  RB-NRS-92.  Available Online Only.
Pulpwood production in the Northern Region, 2007.  Piva, Ronald J.  95 p.

Discusses 2007 production and receipts of pulpwood in the Northern Region. Breaks down production from four subregions—Central States, Lake States, Mid-Atlantic States, and New England States—by species group for each state and compares production with that of previous years. Includes production for 2007 for the Plains States by species group and product form.

 

15.  RN-NRS-199.  Available Online Only.
An assessment of garlic mustard in northern U.S. forests.  Kurtz, C.M.; Hansen, M.H.  5 p.

This publication is part of a series that provides an overview of the presence of invasive plant species monitored on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS). Each research note features one of the invasive plants monitored on forested plots by FIA in the 24 states of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) was introduced by settlers for medicinal and culinary use in the 1800s (Czarapata 2005, Kaufman and Kaufman 2007, Rodgers et al. 2008). In eastern North America this aggressive invader has become one of the most rapidly increasing woodland invasive plant species (Welk et al. 2002), spreading across North America and Canada at a rate of nearly 2,500 square miles per year (Rodgers et al. 2008).

 

16.  RN-NRS-200.  Available Online Only.
An assessment of reed canarygrass in northern U.S. forests.  Kurtz, C.M.; Hansen, M.H.  5 p.

Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a cool-season perennial grass that can survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. It is native to Eurasia and North America; however over the past 100 years, several cultivars have been bred for forage, bioenergy, ornamental use, and restoration (Lavergne and Molofsky 2004). Distinguishing between native and nonnative strains is very difficult. It is believed that most colonies in the Midwest are of Eurasian origin (Czarapata 2005).

 

Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.

 

 

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Last Modified: January 20, 2015