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New Station Publications

Welcome to the electronic version of the Northern Research Station's New Publications List 5 - 2014

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-122.  Integrating fine-scale soil data into species distribution models: preparing Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data from multiple counties.  Peters, Matthew P.; Iverson, Louis R.; Prasad, Anantha M.; Matthews, Steve N.  70 p.  

Fine-scale soil (SSURGO) data were processed at the county level for 37 states within the eastern United States, initially for use as predictor variables in a species distribution model called DISTRIB II. Values from county polygon files converted into a continuous 30-m raster grid were aggregated to 4-km cells and integrated with other environmental and site condition values for use in the DISTRIB II model. In an effort to improve the prediction accuracy of DISTRIB II over our earlier version of DISTRIB, fine-scale soil attributes replaced those derived from coarse-scale soil (STATSGO) data. The methods used to prepare and process the SSURGO data are described and geoprocessing scripts are provided.


  2.  GTR-NRS-P-123.  Penobscot Experimental Forest: 60 years of research and demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010.  Kenefic, Laura S.; Brissette, John C.  185 p.  

The Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in Maine has been the site of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station (previously Northeastern Forest Experiment Station) research on northern conifer silviculture and ecology since 1950. Purchased by forest industry and leased to the Forest Service for long-term experimentation, the PEF was donated to the University of Maine Foundation in 1994. Since that time, the University and the Forest Service have worked in collaboration to advance the PEF as a site for research, demonstration, and education. This publication reports the history of the PEF during its first 60 years (1950 to 2010) and presents highlights of research accomplishments in silviculture, ecology, ecophysiology, nutrient cycling, botany, and other areas. Issues of data management and forest management planning are addressed. Also included is a bibliography of publications originating from research on the PEF, as well as recollections of a research forester stationed there for 30 years. More than half a century of work on the PEF has served as an important source of information for practitioners and policy makers in the Acadian Forest region of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, and informed the practice of silviculture nationally and internationally. Long-term consistency in treatment application and measurement; stand-level replication; and accessible, digital data, metadata, and records archives have facilitated hundreds of studies and made the PEF an invaluable and highly influential research site.


  3.  GTR-NRS-124.  Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project.  Brandt, Leslie; He, Hong; Iverson, Louis; Thompson, Frank R.; Butler, Patricia; Handler, Stephen; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Albrecht, Matthew; Blume-Weaver, Richard; Deizman, Paul; DePuy, John; Dijak, William D.; Dinkel, Gary; Fei, Songlin; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Leahy, Michael; Matthews, Stephen; Nelson, Paul; Oberle, Brad; Perez, Judi; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E.; Shuey, John; Smith, Adam B.; Studyvin, Charles; Tirpak, John M.; Walk, Jeffery W.; Wang, Wen J.; Watts, Laura; Weigel, Dale; Westin, Steve.  254 p.  

The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and impacts to forest ecosystems was considered in order to assess vulnerability to climate change. Mesic upland forests were determined to be the most vulnerable to projected changes in climate, whereas many systems adapted to fire and drought, such as open woodlands, savannas, and glades, were perceived as less vulnerable. Projected changes in climate and the associated ecosystem impacts and vulnerabilities will have important implications for economically valuable timber species, forest-dependent wildlife and plants, recreation, and long-range planning.


  4.  GTR-NRS-125.  Tree cover and aridity projections to 2060: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment.  Greenfield, Eric J.; Nowak, David J.  35 p.  

Future projections of tree cover and climate change are useful to natural resource managers as they illustrate potential changes to our natural resources and the ecosystem services they provide. This report a) details three projections of tree cover change across the conterminous United States based on predicted land-use changes from 2000 to 2060; b) evaluates nine climate projections for the same period to assess which areas of the country may become more or less arid; and c) provides an index of combined tree-cover and aridity change for nine modeled projections to illustrate which areas of the U.S. are projected to experience the greatest impact from tree-cover loss and increasing aridity. The index illustrates a new approach to highlight areas of ecological vulnerability or concern that may develop at the nexus of projected land use and climate change. We found that in all projections the conterminous U.S. loses tree cover by 2060, ranging from a 1.1 to 1.6 percent decline; and that the conterminous United States is becoming more arid by 2060, ranging from a 0.05 to 0.19 decrease in the aridity ratio. Overall, the frequency and magnitude of percent tree cover losses and aridity increases among the counties of the conterminous U.S. are greater than percent tree cover gains and decreases in aridity. The index illustrates that the areas at greatest risk of ecological change from tree loss and increased aridity generally are rapidly urbanizing regions of high tree cover and low aridity such as those found in the metropolitan regions of the Pacific Northwest, Southeast, and Northeast.


  5.  GTR-NRS-126.  Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program].  Palmer, Jeff; Andersch, Adrienn; Wiedenbeck, Jan; Buehlmann, Urs.  12 p.  

WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.


  6.  GTR-NRS-127.  Past and prospective carbon stocks in forests of northern Wisconsin: a report from the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Climate Change Response Framework.  Birdsey, Richard; Pan, Yude; Janowiak, Maria; Stewart, Susan; Hines, Sarah; Parker, Linda; Gower, Stith; Lichstein, Jeremy; McCullough, Kevin; Zhang, Fangmin; Chen, Jing; Mladenoff, David; Wayson, Craig; Swanston, Chris.  52 p.  

This report assesses past and prospective carbon stocks for 4.5 million ha of forest land in northern Wisconsin, including a baseline assessment and analysis of the impacts of disturbance and management on carbon stocks. Carbon density (amount of carbon stock per unit area) averages 237 megagrams (Mg) per ha, with the National Forest lands having slightly higher carbon density than other ownership classes. Over the last decade, carbon stocks of northern Wisconsin forests have been increasing by about one teragram (Tg) per year or 0.22 megagrams per ha per year, with most of the increase in live biomass. Harvest, wind, and fire have been principal drivers of forest carbon dynamics over the last century. For all forest types in northern Wisconsin, there is potential to increase stocking on the land by allowing more of the forested area to reach older age classes or by increasing productivity. Opportunities to increase afforestation and reduce deforestation are limited, but the potential exists for utilizing biomass energy as a substitute for fossil fuels. There are several options for private landowners to participate in carbon markets or greenhouse gas registries and receive some credit for additional actions to reduce emissions or increase sequestration of carbon. The methods used here can be adapted for use by other regions or forests to assess carbon stocks and effects of management on future carbon stocks.


  7.  RB-NRS-84.  Urban trees and forests of the Chicago region.  Nowak, David J.; Hoehn, Robert E. III; Bodine, Allison R.; Crane, Daniel E.; Dwyer, John F.; Bonnewell, Veta; Watson, Gary.  106 p.  

An analysis of trees in the Chicago region of Illinois reveals that this area has about 157,142,000 trees with tree and shrub canopy that covers 21.0 percent of the region. The most common tree species are European buckthorn, green ash, boxelder, black cherry, and American elm. Trees in the Chicago region currently store about 16.9 million tons of carbon (61.9 million tons CO2) valued at $349 million. In addition, these trees remove about 677,000 tons of carbon per year (2.5 million tons CO2/year) ($14.0 million/year) and about 18,080 tons of air pollution per year ($137 million/year). Chicago's regional forest is estimated to reduce annual residential energy costs by $44.0 million/year. The compensatory value of the trees is estimated at $51.2 billion. Various invasive species, insects and diseases, and lack of adequate regeneration of certain species currently threaten to change the extent and composition of this forest. Information on the structure and functions of the regional forest can be used to inform forest management programs and to integrate forests into plans to improve environmental quality in the Chicago region. These findings can be used to improve and augment support for urban forest management programs and to integrate urban forests within plans to improve environmental quality in the Chicago region.


  8.  RB-NRS-85.  Kansas' Forests 2010.  Moser, W. Keith; Hansen, Mark H.; Atchison, Robert L.; Butler, Brett J.; Crocker, Susan J.; Domke, Grant; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Lister, Andrew; Miles, Patrick D.; Nelson, Mark D.; Piva, Ronald J.; Woodall, Christopher W.  85 p.  

The second completed annual inventory of Kansas' forests reports 2.4 million acres of forest land, roughly 5 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for 4.4 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 55 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 32 percent of the timberland area. Kansas' forests have continued to increase in volume. In 2010, net volume of growing stock on timberland was an estimated 1.45 billion cubic feet compared with 0.5 billion cubic feet in 1965. Live-tree biomass on forest land in Kansas amounted to 82.5 million dry tons in 2010. More than 6 percent was in trees less than 5 inches in diameter. About 94 percent of Kansas? forest land is held by private landowners.


  9.  RB-NRS-86.  Illinois' Forests 2010.  Crocker, Susan J.; Nelson, Mark D.; Barnett, Charles J.; Butler, Brett J.; Domke, Grant M.; Hansen, Mark H.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Lister, Tonya W.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Piva, Ronald J.; Wilson, Barry T.; Woodall, Christopher W.  52 p.  

The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average annual net growth of growing stock from 2001-2005 to 2006-2010 averages 215.1 million cubic feet per year. This report includes additional information on forest attributes, land-use change, carbon, timber products, and forest health. The included DVD contains 1) descriptive information on methods, statistics, and quality assurance of data collection, 2) a glossary of terms, 3) tables that summarize quality assurance, 4) a core set of tabular estimates for a variety of forest resources, and 5) a Microsoft Access database that represents an archive of data used in this report, with tools that allow users to produce customized estimates.


  10.  RB-NRS-87.  West Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2008.  Wiedenbeck, Jan; Grushecky, Shawn.  16 p.  

Thirty active harvesting operations were part of a harvest and utilization study conducted in West Virginia in 2008. Data were collected on roundwood product and residue yields obtained from trees of different sizes, species, and qualities. This study was modeled after studies conducted on a regular and frequent basis by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in the Southern Research Station. Of the total volume harvested during this study, 88 percent was utilized and 12 percent was considered unutilized. Of the hardwood logging residue measured, 56 percent was from nongrowing-stock sections of the trees—e.g., tops, limbs, and stumps. The other 44 percent was unutilized growing-stock sections including upper stems and saw log-sized material. When the harvest utilization factors estimated in this study are applied to Forest Inventory and Analysis estimates of total harvest volume for West Virginia in 2008, a statewide hardwood logging residue estimate of 35.5 million cubic feet is obtained.


  11.  RB-NRS-88.  Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009.  Haugen, David E.  56 p.  

Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.


  12.  RB-NRS-89.  National pulpwood production, 2010.  Piva, Ronald J.; Bentley, James W.; Hayes, Steven W.  74 p.  

U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the Western States with 8.2 million cords. In 2010, 136 pulp mills were in operation drawing wood from 36 of the lower 48 states. Pulping capacity for the Nation totaled 166,096 tons per day, with southern mills accounting for 74 percent of the total capacity.


  13.  RB-NRS-90.  Ohio's Forests 2011.  Widmann, Richard H; Randall, Cotton K.; Butler, Brett J.; Domke, Grant M.; Griffith, Douglas M.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Moser, W. Keith; Morin, Randall S.; Nelson, Mark D.; Riemann, Rachel; Woodall, Christopher W.  68 p.  

This report summarizes the second full cycle of annual inventories, 2007-2011, of Ohio's forests by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. Since 2006, forest land increased by 2.1 percent and currently totals 8.1 million acres. Net volume of live trees on forest land increased by 7 percent totaling 15.9 billion cubic feet. Most stands are dominated by large trees, 66 percent are in sawtimber-size stands, although most stands are less than fully stocked with growing-stock trees. Annual growth outpaced removals by a ratio of 2.2:1. This report includes additional information on forest attributes, land-use change, carbon, and forest health. The included DVD contains 1) descriptive information on methods, statistics, and quality assurance of data collection, 2) a glossary of terms, 3) tables that summarize quality assurance, 4) a core set of tabular estimates for a variety of forest resources, and 5) a Microsoft Access database that represents an archive of data used in this report, with tools that allow users to produce customized estimates.


  14.  RN-NRS-198.  Can cover data be used as a surrogate for seedling counts in regeneration stocking evaluations in northern hardwood forests?.  Ristau, Todd E.; Stout, Susan L.  10 p.  

Assessment of regeneration can be time-consuming and costly. Often, foresters look for ways to minimize the cost of doing inventories. One potential method to reduce time required on a plot is use of percent cover data rather than seedling count data to determine stocking. Robust linear regression analysis was used in this report to predict seedling count data from percent cover data based on 3,800 plots on which both count and cover data were collected. Results showed very poor relationships of cover data to seedling counts overall. The weakest relationships were found in plots that had received a shelterwood seed cut without any other regeneration preparation in the past. The better relationship came from plots where competition was reduced through herbicide application and shelterwood seed cutting. Immediately following herbicide application, when total seedling numbers were lowest, the relationship of cover to counts was best, with r-squared values as high as 0.8 for black birch, and between 0.4 and 0.6 for the smallest black cherry and red maple. These numbers quickly declined as seedlings developed. Cover data cannot reliably serve as a surrogate for seedling counts.


Copies still available

  15.  GTR-NE-318.  Atlas of climate change effects in 150 bird species of the Eastern United States.  Matthews, Stephen; O'Connor, Raymond; Iverson, Louis R.; Prasad, Anantha M.  10 p.  

NOTE: Instructions for navigating this publication can be found on the front cover. This atlas documents the current and potential future distribution of 150 common bird species in the Eastern United States. Distribution data for individual species were derived from the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) from 1981 to 1990. Regression tree analysis was used to model the BBS data as functions of contemporary climate and elevation variables and the current distribution of 68 tree species that occurred in the bird models. The model for each bird species is described. These models were projected onto two scenarios of global climate change. Depending on the global climate model used, as many as 78 bird species are projected to decrease in abundance by at least 25 percent, while as many as 33 species are projected to increase in abundance by at least 25 percent.


Available Online Only

16.  RN-NRS-199.  Available Online Only.
An assessment of garlic mustard in northern U.S. forests.  Kurtz, C.M.; Hansen, M.H.  5 p.

This publication is part of a series that provides an overview of the presence of invasive plant species monitored on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS). Each research note features one of the invasive plants monitored on forested plots by FIA in the 24 states of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) was introduced by settlers for medicinal and culinary use in the 1800s (Czarapata 2005, Kaufman and Kaufman 2007, Rodgers et al. 2008). In eastern North America this aggressive invader has become one of the most rapidly increasing woodland invasive plant species (Welk et al. 2002), spreading across North America and Canada at a rate of nearly 2,500 square miles per year (Rodgers et al. 2008).


17.  RN-NRS-200.  Available Online Only.
An assessment of reed canarygrass in northern U.S. forests.  Kurtz, C.M.; Hansen, M.H.  5 p.

Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a cool-season perennial grass that can survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. It is native to Eurasia and North America; however over the past 100 years, several cultivars have been bred for forage, bioenergy, ornamental use, and restoration (Lavergne and Molofsky 2004). Distinguishing between native and nonnative strains is very difficult. It is believed that most colonies in the Midwest are of Eurasian origin (Czarapata 2005).


Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.



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Last Modified: September 25, 2014