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Title: Ground cover management in walnut and other hardwood plantings
Author: Van Sambeek, J.W.; Garrett, H.E.
Publication: In: Michler, C.H.; Pijut, P.M.; Van Sambeek, J.W.; Coggeshall, M.V.; Seifert, J.; Woeste, K.; Overton, R.; Ponder, F., Jr., eds. Proceedings of the 6th Walnut Council Research Symposium; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-243. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 85-100
Abstract: Ground cover management in walnut plantings and established stands can include (1) manipulating the resident vegetation, (2) mechanical control, (3) chemical control, (4) mulching, (5) planting cover crops, or (6) interplanting woody nurse crops. Data from over 110 reports were used to compile a database that compared growth of black walnut and other hardwoods under different ground cover treatments as either a percentage of tree growth in the absence of ground cover vegetation or with little or no management of the resident vegetation. Overall, ground cover treatments with the best tree growth were application of organic mulches and annual cultivation. Ground covers associated with the slowest tree growth were grass sods and unmanaged or mowed resident vegetation. Black walnut tended to be slightly more sensitive to ground cover management practices than other hardwoods. The choice of a vegetation management system is largely controlled by management objectives, site characteristics, equipment costs, and, most importantly, labor availability.
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