Northern Research Station
11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200
Newtown Square, PA 19073
(610) 557-4132 TTY/TDD
Title: Tree health and physiology in a changing environment
Author: Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash; Wargo, Philip M.; Vogt, Kristina A.
Publication: In: Mickler, Robert A.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Hom, John, eds. Responses of northern U.S. forests to environmental change. Ecological studies 139. New York: Springer-Verlag: 229-274.
Abstract: A tree is a large, long-lived, perennial, compartmented, woody, shedding, walling plant. This definition is based on new tree biology concepts (Shigo, 1986a,b, 1991) and explains much about how mature trees function through their unique structure. When the tree begins its life, it is mostly leaf in mass (Fig. 7.la). As a tree grows in stature, it becomes mostly stem in mass and the foliage represents only a few percent of the total mass.
This document is in PDF format. You can obtain a free PDF reader from Adobe.
Forest Service Home | USDA.gov | recreation.gov