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Title: Hmong Americans: Issues and strategies related to outdoor recreation
Author: Bengston, David N.; Schermann, Michele.
Publication: In: Allison, Maria T.; Schneider, Ingrid E., eds. Diversity and the recreation profession: Organizational perspectives, revised edition. State College, PA: Venture Publishing: 19-24.
Abstract: Immigration is an increasingly important factor in US society. According to the US Census Bureau, the foreign-born population increased by 57 percent from 1990 to 2000 and accounts for almost 12 percent of the US population as of 2005. The bureau's 2005 American Community Survey found that the rapid pace of immigration during the 1990s has continued. The arrival of about 1.5 million legal and illegal immigrants and about 750,000 annual births to immigrant women each year accounts for three-fourths of all US population growth. The impacts and extent of immigration become more obvious as immigrants bypass traditional gateway cities and states and move to communities that have seen little immigration in the past. Immigrants are remarkably diverse in terms of culture and country of origin, and there are often striking differences between groups. For example, the Census Bureau distinguishes 16 separate Asian groups, most with different languages, histories, cultures, and recreational styles. This paper examines the case of one of these groups, the Hmong, with a distinctive recreational style and unusually active participation in some outdoor recreation activities.
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