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Title: Eastern Hemlock Forests: Guidelines to Minimize the Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
Author: Ward, Jeffrey S.; Montgomery, Michael E.; Cheah, Carole A.S.-J.; Onken, Brad P.; Cowles, Richard S.
Publication: NA-TP-03-04. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry, Morgantown, WV. 27 p.
Key Words: hwa, hemlock woolly aldegid, hemlock woolly adelgid disease, hemlock woolly adelgid control, hemlock woolly adelgid management, saving hemlocks,
Abstract: Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is the most shade-tolerant and long-lived tree species in Eastern North America. Its unsurpassed ability to tolerate low light enables it to form dense canopies and stands that provide a unique habitat for many plant and wildlife species. Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a relic species limited to a small area in the southern range of eastern hemlock. Both species are being threatened by the accidentally introduced hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae).
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