Northern Research Station
11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200
Newtown Square, PA 19073
(610) 557-4132 TTY/TDD
Title: Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods
Author: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. (tech. Coords.)
Publication: Agriculture Handbook 654, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. vol.2, 877 p.
Key Words: Forests, wildlife, environment, soil condition, moisture, climate change, genetics, competition
Abstract: The total environment of a tree is a complex integration of physical and biological elements. The physical elements are related to climate and soil and include radiation, precipitation, and the movement and composition of air; as well as the texture of the soil and its structure, depth, moisture capacity, drainage, nutrient content, and topographic position. Biological elements are the plant associates; the larger animals that use the forest as a source of food and shelter; the many small animals, insects, and insectuke animals; the fungi to which the trees are hosts; and the microorganisms in the soil.
Forest Service Home | USDA.gov | recreation.gov