Scientists & Staff
Kevin T. Smith
Biological and Environmental Influences on Forest Health and Productivity
E-mail: Contact Kevin T. Smith
Supervisory Plant Physiologist
271 Mast Road
Durham, NH 03824
Current ResearchMy research is focused on the response of trees to injury, infection, and environmental change. Sources of injury may be obvious such as those from fire, storms, and human activity. Less obvious yet significant change may come from perturbations in soil chemistry due to acid rain.
Current research examines:
- the recovery of surviving trees following injury from fires, storms, and tree care practices,
- the applicability and limitations of dendrochemistry to provide markers of environmental change, and
- the role of the wood decay process to replenish essential elements to forest soils.
- Improve application of information in tree rings to better understand the impacts of land use, climate, and disturbance on trees.
- Identify indicators of physiological processes that contribute to tree mortality or recovery after disturbance or injury.
- Improve methods to communicate relevant science findings to practicing arborists, loggers, and foresters
Prislan, Peter; Gricar, Jozica; de Luis, Martin; Smith, Kevin T.; Cufar, Katarina. 2013. Phenological variation in xylem and phloem formation in Fagus sylvatica from two contrasting sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 180: 142-151.
Balouet, J.C., Burken, J.G., Karg, F., Vroblesky, D., Smith, K.T., Grudd, H., Rindby, A., Beaujard, F., Chalot, M. 2012. Dendrochemistry of multiple releases of chlorinated solvents at a former industrial site. Environmental Science & Technology 46: 9541-9547.
Lawrence, G.B., Lapenis, A.G., Berggren, D., Aparin, B.F., Smith, K.T., Shortle, W.C., Bailey, S.W., Varlyquin, D., Babikov, B. 2005. Climate Dependency of Tree Growth Suppressed by Acid Deposition Effects on Soils in Northwest Russia. Environmental Science and Technology 39: 2004-2010.
Smith, K.T., K. Cufar, and T. Levanic. 1999. Temporal stability and dendroclimatology in silver fir and red spruce. Phyton 39: 117-122.
Bondietti, E.A., N. Momoshima, W.C. Shortle, and K.T. Smith. 1990. A historical perspective on divalent cation trends in red spruce stemwood and the hypothetical relationship to acidic deposition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 1850-1858.
Smith, K.T. and W.C. Shortle. 1990. IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and barrier zone formation in red maple. European Journal of Forest Pathology 20: 241-246.
Shortle, W.C. and K.T. Smith. 1988. Aluminum-induced calcium deficiency syndrome in declining red spruce. Science 240: 1017-1018.
Smith, K.T., C.W. Bacon, and E.S. Luttrell. 1985. Reciprocal translocation of carbohydrates between host and fungus in bahiagrass infected with Myriogenospora atramentosa. Phytopathology 75 (4): 407-411.
Smith, K.T., R.O. Blanchard, and W.C. Shortle. 1981. Postulated mechanism of biological control of decay fungi in red maple wounds treated with Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 71 (5): 496-498.
Why This Research is Important
Mechanical injury, subsequent infection, and environmental change are facts of life for wild, rural, and urban trees. Their impact depends on the diverse goals of forest management and wildlife conservation, high-quality wood products, or safe and healthy trees in our communities. Maximizing the benefits of trees for forests and communities requires understanding how those goals are linked to tree biology and responses to change.
- University of Georgia, Department of Plant Pathology, Ph.D. Plant Pathology and Mycology, 1982
- University of New Hampshire, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, M.S. Botany and Plant Pathology, 1979
- Connecticut College, Department of Botany, B.A. Botany, 1976
- Tree Ring Society, Board Member (2008 - Current)
- Biodeterioration Society, Editorial Board Member (1992 - Current)
- International Society of Arboriculture, Member (1990 - Current)
Awards & Recognition
- Award for Arboricultural Research, 2014
For outstanding contributions to research and knowledge of arboriculture, awarded by the Western Chapter--International Society of Arboriculture
- NRS Distinguished Science Award, 2013
For significant contributions and major impacts on fundamental research that links tree growth and wood decay to biogeochemical cycles and forest disturbance from fire, storms, and environmental pollution.
- NICOLE Technology Award, 2012
This award from the Network for Industrially Contaminated Land in Europe recognizes work by Smith and a European-based consortium for progress in determining the applicability and limitations of dendrochemistry for environmental assessment.
- The Richard W. Harris award for excellence in education, 2011
This award from the Western Chapter--International Society of Arboriculture recognizes Smith's contribution to environmental education for the tree care industry.
- NRS Engaging Urban America Award, 2010
This award from the Northern Research Station recognizes Smith's work to engage people in the care of urban and community trees through an enhanced understanding of how trees survive and thrive.
- Honorary Life Membership, New Hampshire Arborists Association, 2007
This award from the New Hampshire state-wide arborist association recognizes Smith's long term committment to proper tree care and education.
Featured Publications & Products
- Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Hakan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burken, Joel G. 2014. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF).
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C. 2013. Calcium amendment may increase hydraulic efficiency and forest evapotranspiration.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Dudzik, Kenneth R. 2014. Tree survival 15 years after the ice storm of January 1998.
- Glaeser, Jessie A.; Smith, Kevin T. 2010. Decay fungi associated with oaks and other hardwoods in the western United States.
- de Luis, Martin; Cufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Novak, Klemen; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Raventós, José; Saz, Miguel Angel; Smith, Kevin T. 2013. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis).
- Smith, Kevin T. 2013. What's bugging youslime molds.
Publications & Products
- Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Smith, Kevin T.; Falk, Donald A. 2014. Changes in tracheid and ray traits in fire scars of North American conifers and their ecophysiological implications.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2014. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts.
- Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Smith, Kevin T.; Falk, Donald A. 2014. Resin duct size and density as ecophysiological traits in fire scars of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Jellison, Jody; Smith, Kevin T.; Schilling, Jonathan S. 2014. Studying the role of wood-decay fungi in calcium cycling on the Penobscot Experimental Forest: a progress report.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2013. Compartmentalization of pathogens in fire-injured trees.
- Glaeser, Jessie A.; Smith, Kevin T. 2013. Decay fungi of riparian trees in the Southwestern U.S..
- Smith, Kevin T. 2013. Do you believe in palm trees?.
- Sutherland, E. K.; Farella, Josh; Wright, David K; Hyp, Ian; Smith, K. T.; Falk, Donald A.; Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus. 2013. External charring and fire scarring in three western conifers.
- Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Smith, Kevin T.; Falk, Donald A. 2013. Fire-induced wounding elicits changes in the wood anatomy of North American conifers.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Sutherland, Elaine; Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Falk, Donald. 2013. Macroanatomy of compartmentalization in fire scars of three western conifers.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2013. Phenology of slippery bark and common foliar diseases.
- Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Smith, Kevin T.; Falk, Donald A. 2013. Resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred North American conifers.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Glaeser, Jessie A. 2013. Skeleton decay in red cedar.
- Thompson, Therese A.; Thorn, R. Greg; Smith, Kevin T. 2012. Hypholoma lateritium isolated from coarse woody debris, the forest floor, and mineral soil in a deciduous forest in New Hampshire.
- Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.; Lapenis, Andrei G. 2012. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2012. Letter to the Editor [response to "Towards a new model of branch attachment" by D. Slater and C. Harbinson].
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Jellison, Jody; Schilling, Jonathan S. 2012. Potential of decaying wood to restore root-available base cations in depleted forest soils.
- Smith, K.T. 2012. Solution movement in trees and soils [Abstract].
- Smith, Kevin T. 2012. The biology of burls.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2011. Tree rings and the local environment.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2010. Biogeochemistry and landscape fertility.
- Glaeser, Jessie A.; Smith, Kevin T. 2010. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Dudzik, Kenneth R.; Smith, Kevin T. 2010. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2010. Humus and soil fertility.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2009. Are trees long-lived?.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C.; Connolly, Jon H.; Minocha, Rakesh; Jellison, Jody. 2009. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2009. Connections in wood and foliage.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2009. Greenhouse warming and landscape care.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2009. Keeping trees as assets.
- Balouet, Jean Christophe; Smith, Kevin T.; Vroblesky, Don; Oudijk, Gil. 2009. Use of dendrochronology and dendrochemistry in environmental forensics: does it meet the Daubert criteria?.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Smith, Kevin T.; Minocha, Rakesh; Lawrence, Gregory B. 2008. 6.0 Monitoring recovery from calcium depletion and nitrogen saturation.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2008. An organismal view of dendrochronology.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2008. Disposable Landscapes.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Oudijk, Gil. 2008. Elemental line scanning of an increment core using EDXRF: from fundamental research to environmental forensics applications.
- Balouet, Jean-Christophe; Oudijk, Gil; Smith, Kevin T.; Petrisor, Ioana; Grudd, Hakan; Stocklassa, Bengt. 2007. Applied dendroecology and environmental forensics. Characterizing and age dating environmental releases: fundamentals and case studies.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C.; Jellison, Jody; Connolly, Jon; Schilling, Jonathan. 2007. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in early stages of sapwood decay in red spruce, eastern hemlock, red maple, and paper birch.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2007. Plants' essential chemical elements.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2006. Compartmentalization today.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy. 2006. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Lewis, Phillip A. 2005. Potential concerns for tree response from stem injection.
- Smith, K.T. 2005. Tree biology and problem trees.
- Smith, K.T. 2005. Tree health and energy budgets.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C. 2003. Radial growth of hardwoods following the 1998 ice storm in New Hampshire and Maine.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Dudzik, Kenneth R. 2003. Tree Survival and Growth Following Ice Storm Injury.
- McLaughlin, Samuel B.; Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T. 2002. Dendroecological applications in air pollution and environmental chemistry: research needs.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C. 2001. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce.
- Smith, Kevin; Shortle, Walter; Dudzik, Kenneth. 2001. Patterns of Storm Injury and Tree Response.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy. 2001. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods.
- Smith, Kevin T. 2001. Zone lines.
- Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy; Smith, Kevin. 2000. Resistance is not futile: The response of hardwoods to fire-caused wounding.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash; Wargo, Philip M.; Vogt, Kristina A. 2000. Tree health and physiology in a changing environment.
- Torelli, N.; Shortle, W.C.; Cufar, K.; Ferlin, F.; Smith, K.T. 1999. Detecting changes in tree health and productivity in silver fir-beech forests of Slovenia.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy. 1999. Fire-scar formation and compartmentalization in oak.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash C.; Wargo, Philip M.; Vogt, Kristiina A. 1999. Tree health and physiology in a changing environment.
- Smith, Kevin T; Shortle, Walter C. 1998. A First Look at Tree Decay: An Introduction to How Injury and Decay Affect Trees.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C. 1998. A first look at tree decay. An introduction to how injury and decay affect trees.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Minocha, Rakesh; Lawrence, Gregory B.; David, Mark B. 1997. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce.
- Ostrofsky, A.; Jellison, J.; Smith, K.T.; Shortle, W.C. 1997. Changes in cation concentrations in red spruce wood decayed by brown rot and white rot fungi.
- Smith, Kevin T. 1997. Phenolics and compartmentalization in the sapwood of broad-leaved trees.
- Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Dudzik, Kenneth R. 1996. Decay diseases of stemwood: Detection, diagnosis, and management.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Alexeyev, Vladislav A. 1996. Dynamics of calcium concentration in stemwood of red spruce and Siberian fir.
- Smith, Kevin T.; Shortle, Walter C. 1996. Tree biology and dendrochemistry.
- Smith, K.T.; Shortle, W.C.; Ostrofsky, W.D. 1995. Aluminum and calcium in fine root tips of red spruce collected from the forest floor.
- Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Dudzik, K.R.; Parker, Sharon. 1995. Response of maple sapwood to injury and infection.
- Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.; Alexeyev, V.A. 1995. Similar patterns of change in stemwood calcium concentration in red spruce and Siberian fir.
National Research Highlights
|Chemical Analysis of Precisely Dated Tree Rings Used in Environmental Forensics|
Dendrochemistry, the chemical analysis of precisely dated tree rings, provides a dynamic record of change for the landscape and within the livin ...
|New Research Suggests Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Have Reduced the Exposure of Tree Roots and Surface Water to Harmful Aluminum|
Wood decay fungi add humus to the forest floor with a high proportion of essential calcium and low amounts of potentially toxic aluminum, which ...